Leadership Restoration Scales

Measures of  Forgiveness and Restoration

Scale names: Leadership Restoration Scales

           Leadership Restoration Scale: Forgive and Restore (LRSF)

           Leadership Restoration Scale: Restoration (LRSR)

 Scales overview

Two short scales measure two dimensions of congregants views on restoring a religious leader to ministry. One scale includes forgiveness (LRSF) and a second scale focuses exclusively on degrees of restoration without mentioning forgiveness (LRSR).


Sutton and Jordan (2013).


The LRSF is a 3-item scale of forgiveness and restoration

The LRSR is a 6-item scale of restoration

Response Type

A 7-point rating scale with anchors 1 = Very Strongly Agree and 7 = Very Strongly Disagree. See example below.

Sample items

The full scales can be found in Sutton and Jordan (2013) or can be downloaded here- see availability below.

LRSF Scale

2. The victim or victims offended by the person need to forgive the person before the person can be restored to any public ministry position.

Very Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Mostly Agree

Somewhat Agree

Somewhat Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Very Strongly Disagree









LRSR Scale

3. It is unlikely that this person could return to the same or similar public ministry position.

Very Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Mostly Agree

Somewhat Agree

Somewhat Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Very Strongly Disagree









Descriptive Statistics

These data are based on a sample of 169 people who reported knowing a member of the clergy who committed an offense (Sutton & Jordan, 2013). Skew and kurtosis were within normal limits for both measures.

LRSF M = 9.85, SD = 4.79

LRSR M = 17.96, SD = 6.61


The two LRS scales measure different responses to restoring a leader. Although they are not significantly related to each other (r = .40) they are differently related to other measures of forgiveness and spirituality. A statistically significant relationship was defined as p < .05.

LRSF was significantly positively correlated with TRIM-A (Transgression Related Interpersonal Motivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

LRSF was significantly negatively correlated with the following scales

CSRI 1 (Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory)

IER-EP (Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity Scale Revised-Extrinsic Personal Subscale; Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989)

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore) was significantly positively correlated with the following scales

TRIM-A (Transgression Related InterpersonalMotivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

CRSI Level I offenses: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory

CRSI Level 2 offenses: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore) was significantly negatively correlated with the SCBCS (Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale, Hwang et al., 2008)


See Appendix B of Sutton and Jordan (2013) or

Click Here to Download Scales

 Permissions -- if identified

The scales may be used in research and teaching at no charge. Please cite Sutton & Jordan (2013). 

The scales may be modified to fit specific situations but kindly cite the Sutton & Jordan (2013) reference.

For use in books or any commercial use, contact Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD at suttong@evangel.edu

 Link to the related CSRI scales


Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. R., O'Connor, L. E., Parrott, L., & Wade, N. G. (2005). Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. Journal of Personality, 73, 183–225. doi:10.1111/j.14676494.2004.00308.x.

Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-Revised and single item scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 348–354. doi:10.2307/1386745.

Hwang, J., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: an abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr's compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421–428. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0117-2.

McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E., Brown, S., & Hight, T. L. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586–1603. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1586.

Sutton, G. W. (2016). A House Divided: Sexuality, morality, and Christian cultures. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. ISBN: 9781498224888 AMAZON

Sutton, G. W. & Jordan, K. (2013). Evaluating attitudes toward clergy restoration: The psychometric properties of two scales. Pastoral Psychology. doi 10.1007/s11089-013-0527-7 Published online 16 March 2013.  [Citation for these scales.]

Sutton, G. W., McLeland, K. C., Weaks, K. Cogswell, P. E., & Miphouvieng, R. N. (2007). Does gender matter? An exploration of gender, spirituality, forgiveness and restoration following pastor transgressions. Pastoral Psychology. 55, 645-663. doi 10.1007/ s11089-007-0072-3  ResearchGate Link        Academia Link

Sutton, G.W., & Thomas, E. K. (2005). Can derailed pastors be restored? Effects of offense and age on restoration. Pastoral Psychology, 53, 583-599.              Academia Link    Research Gate Link

Thomas, E. K., White, K., & Sutton, G.W. (2008). Religious leadership failure: Apology, responsibility-taking, gender, forgiveness, and restoration. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27, 16-29.      Academia Link    Research Gate Link

 Resource for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE





Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE



Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

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