Thursday, January 11, 2018

Transformational Leadership Survey

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Transformational leadership is a popular style of leadership with evidence that transformational leaders influence work teams. Transformational leaders have been identified as those with a charismatic personality who inspire others with a clear vision for the future. They communicate well and serve as role models as they inspire confidence and increase motivation.

Here's a quote from Edwards et al., 2010

Burns (1978)[18] first conceptualized transformational leaders as those who mobilize their efforts to reform organizations, in part by raising followers’ consciousness beyond personal interests to be more in line with organizational goals and vision. Interactive and highly participatory encounters among all members of a team are key ingredients. Through these interactions, visions emerge, consensus is built, plans are discussed, and potential roadblocks are explored, increasing buy-in and accountability among team members. Leaders influence the process by promoting intellectual stimulation, inspiring motivation, and taking each member’s needs into consideration (Bass, 1985[19]).


You can find a short online measure that includes 12-items at this McGrawHill link. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale. It can be scored after you respond to each item.


A more in-depth survey with a complete list of items is also available online as an Appendix to a
published article by Jennifer Edwards and her colleagues (2010). The study was funded by NIDA. In case the link does not work, Here is the author contact information:

Corresponding Author: Jennifer R. Edwards, M.S., Graduate Research Assistant, Institute of Behavioral Research, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298740, Fort Worth, TX 76129, Telephone: (817) 257-7226, Fax: (817) 257-7290, ude.uct@sdrawde.r.j[1]

Because of the length of the TLS, I will only include a few sample items.

IN1. shows determination on the job.

Encourages Innovation
EI2. attempts to improve the program by taking a new approach to business as usual.

Inspirational Motivation
IM3. makes staff aware of the need for change in the program.


Edwards, J. R., Knight, D. K., Broome, K. M., & Flynn, P. M. (2010). The Development and Validation of a Transformational Leadership Survey for Substance Use Treatment Programs. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(9), 1279–1302.
  ncbi link

Learn more about Creating Surveys in my book available on AMAZON.

If you work with leaders as a coach or counselor, you may be interested in this book- Applied Statistics, Concepts for Counselors - also on AMAZON.

Find more survey items and links to surveys at the Creating Survey website.

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

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Tuesday, January 9, 2018

FORGIVENESS: Trait Forgiveness Scale (TFS)

There are several questionnaires that can help individuals, clinicians, and researchers discover levels of forgiveness. As you might suspect, the different measures reflect different ideas about forgiveness.

In this post I will look at trait forgiveness rather than state forgiveness. I am using trait in a psychological sense to mean a disposition or tendency—a behavior pattern that we might consider a part of someone’s personality. Psychological scientists sometimes refer to trait forgiveness as dispositional forgiveness or forgivingness.

Trait forgiveness stands in contrast to a particular state of forgiveness. For example, a person may think about a specific offender and a specific event and respond to questions on a “state” scale to indicate their current progress in forgiving the offender.

We should also keep in mind that most older forgiveness scales focused on victims forgiving another person rather than forgiving themselves.

Trait Forgiveness Scale

The trait forgiveness scale was developed by several psychological scientists (Berry, Worthington, O’Connor, Parrott, & Wade, 2005). There are 10-items, which are rated on a 5-point likert-type scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. As you can see, scores could range from 10 to 50. 

Following are the phrases for each numerical rating.

5 = Strongly Agree
4 = Mildly Agree
3 = Agree and Disagree Equally
2 = Mildly Disagree
1 = Strongly Disagree

Reliability data have been reported in the range of .74 to .80 using Chronbach’s alpha. Two colleagues and I found alpha = .81 in a Christian sample (Sutton, Jordan, & Worthington, 2014).

Forgiveness items

Following are two items that will give you a sense of how the developers think about trait forgiveness.

_______    1.  People close to me probably think I hold a grudge too long.
_______    2.  I can forgive a friend for almost anything.

In the Berry et al. article, the authors provide average scores for men and women in four samples. The mean scores for men ranged from 30.4 to 36.3 and for women, 31.3 to 34.9.

You can find the full 10-items of the Trait Forgiveness Scale on pages 222 - 223 of the Berry et al., (2005) reference listed below.

Learn more about scales and survey items in Creating Surveys. A handy reference for clinicians and researchers.

Creating Surveys

Create better surveys for work and school



Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. R., O'Connor, L. E., Parrott, L., & Wade, N. G. (2005). Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. Journal of Personality, 73, 183-225. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00308.x Click for Online link

Sutton, G. W., Jordan, K., & Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2014). Spirituality, hope, compassion, and forgiveness: Contributions of Pentecostal spirituality to godly love. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33, 212-226. ResearchGate 

Counselors and students in counselor education programs may find Applied Statistics for Counselors also relevant.  See Applied Statistics on AMAZON.

Applied Statistics: Concepts for Counselors

Learn more about forgiveness in Chapter 6 of  Living Well

Connections and Links to Resources

My Page

My Books   AMAZON

FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton

TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

Publications (many free downloads)
  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)
  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)

Tuesday, January 2, 2018

Measuring Attitudes about Trust

Recently, I read a Gallup survey reporting the views of Americans about ethics and honesty of people in various professions. In a sense, the findings indicate how much Americans trust the people in the professions. Nurses won the top spot at 84% "very high" ratings—they have been #1 for 15 years in a row. Clergy are in the middle at 44% and Members of Congress at the bottom of their list at 8%.  
Read the survey for more details of this 2017 study.

I was surprised by the clergy data. And found another survey, which produced similar results in the UK. The Ipsos MORI poll reported that school-age children highly trusted doctors to tell the truth (88%). But clergy came in at 46%, which is below Scientists at 53%.

Levels of trust can vary. And trust can be defined in different ways.

How do you measure trust?

I found two short trust scales at the Fetzer organization, which are available in a pdf document (see below). You will find references to studies in addition to a description of the scales.

The General Trust Scale was developed by Yamagishi (1986). It uses a 5-item Likert type rating scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree.

Two sample items are:

1.) Most people are basically honest.
2.) Most people are trustworthy.

The scale is score by adding the items together.

The 5-item Trust Scale is also available and rated on the same 5-item Likert-type scale of agreement.

Two sample items are:

1.) Most people tell a lie when they can benefit by doing so.
2.) Those devoted to unselfish causes are often exploited by others.

Following is a link to the Fetzer document where you can download the measures and research summaries.

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Learn more about Creating Surveys, including many free items 

AMAZON Kindle and Paperback


Some readers may find this reference guide helpful. It is recommended for first year graduate students in counseling programs.


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Belief in God Scale

  Assessment name: Belief in God Scale Scale overview: Authors: D. Randles et al. (2015). Response Type: Items are rated on a scale ...