Showing posts with label Depression. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Depression. Show all posts

Thursday, October 27, 2022

Depression Anxiety Stress Scales -21 (DASS-21)

 


Scale name: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

Scale overview: The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) is a 21-item screening instrument for the three psychological conditions of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Note: There is a 42-item version of the DASS. This post focuses on the 21-item version.

Authors: Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995)

Response Type: Items are rated on a 4-point scale of frequency.

0 = Did not apply to me at all.

1= Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time.

2= Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time.

3 = Applied to me very much, or most of the time.

Scale items

Each of the three scales (Depression, Anxiety, Stress) has 7-items worded in the first person e.g., “I felt…” or “I experienced…” and so forth.

 

Reliability:

Internal consistency values based on Cronbach Alpha calculations were strong for the DASS-21 (Antony et al., 1988).

Depression = .94

Anxiety = .87

Stress = .91

Validity: Factor analysis supported the structure of three scales. Factor loadings are reported in the Antony et al. (1988) publication.

Antony et al., (1988) reported concurrent validity data comparing the three DASS-21 scales to the Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) and STAI-T measures.

DASS-21 Scales- Correlations with other measures

Depression and BDI = .79

Anxiety and BAI = .85

Stress and STAI-T = .68

Note: All of the scales in the study were correlated with values ranging from .46 to .85.

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Stanford et al. (2021) included the DASS-21 in a psychology of religion study. Religious coping was assessed using the Brief RCOPE. Negative coping was linked to stress (39), anxiety (.40), and depression (.41). There was a weak, albeit statistically significant relationship between positive religious coping and anxiety (.16) but not for either stress or depression.

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DASS-21 and the SCOPES Model

The three subscales of the DASS-21 screen for mental health conditions associated with the E (Emotion/Mood) dimension of the multidimensional SCOPES model.

Availability:

The full set of 21 items is available from the PsycTESTS database.

The items can also be found in Table 2 of the Antony et al. 1998 article.

 

Permissions: According to PsycTESTS:

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.

 

References for the scale

Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176-181. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.10.2.176

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t01004-000

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

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Thursday, December 3, 2020

Depression Treatment Survey Items

 

Pentecostal worship from Bing free to use

Trice and Bjorck (2006b) conducted a survey of Pentecostals to determine their views on the causes and cures of depression. Their set of 25 treatment (i.e., cure) items is available for researchers.

There are 25 “cure” or treatment items in their survey. These items are divided into categories, which are reported below along with alpha values found in their article (Trice & Bjork, 2006b).

Spiritual discipline (.60)

Faith practices (.63)

Rest (.76)

Support (.61)

Health (.57)

Psychology/psychiatry (.72)

Neurology (.62)

Instructions

Prior to completing the survey, participants are given the following definition of depression:

"Depression is a disorder of mood (e.g., feelings, emotions) characterized by sadness and dejection, decreased motivation and interest in life, negative thoughts, and such physical symptoms as sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, and fatigue. Moreover, these characteristics last at least 2 weeks."

Format

For the 25 treatment items, participants rate each regarding its effectiveness as a treatment for depression using the same 7-point scale.

Sample items

prayer with laying on of hands

pastoral counseling

Permission

"Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test." (Trice & Bjorck, 2006a)

Notes

As a part of their conclusion, the authors reported:

"The endorsement of faith practices (including Scripture memorization, confessing sin, fasting, prayer with laying on of hands, deliverance/exorcism, individual prayer, and the avoidance of Yoga meditation1) as the most effective treatments for depression is consistent with Pentecostal doctrines." (p.287)

This study cited in Sutton's review of counseling and psychotherapy techniques with Pentecostal and charismatic Christians (2021).

See Trice & Bjorck (2006b) for details on the study and items related to causes of depression. 

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

References

Sutton, G. W. (2021). Counseling and psychotherapy with Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians: Culture & Research | Assessment & Practice. Springfield, MO: Sunflower.  ISBN-13 : 979-8681036524 AMAZON

Trice, P. D., & Bjorck, J. P. (2006a). Depression Cause and Cure Survey. PsycTESTS. https://doi.org/10.1037/t25036-000

Trice, P. D., & Bjorck, J. P. (2006b). Pentecostal perspectives on causes and cures of depression. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(3), 283-294. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.37.3.283

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Links to Connections

Checkout My Page    www.suttong.com

  

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FOLLOW me on   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Articles: Academia   Geoff W Sutton   ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 


Belief in God Scale

  Assessment name: Belief in God Scale Scale overview: Authors: D. Randles et al. (2015). Response Type: Items are rated on a scale ...