Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale Julie Exline et al.

The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS) assesses six domains of potential struggles, which people may experience. The RSS is a 26-item measure with strong psychometric support.




For a list of the items and more details, see reference below (Exline, Pargament, Grubbs, and Yali, 2014).

Based on the Exline et al. (2014) and a general reading of the topic, I define religious/ spiritual (RS) struggles as experiences of personal concern linked to RS beliefs, practices, values, or experiences, which negatively affect thinking, feelings, or behavior, relationships, or health.

The Six Domains

Following is a quote from page 208 of the 2014 article, which describes the six domains. I have added bold text to help readers identify each domain. Note, r/s is a common abbreviation for religious/spiritual.
The measure assesses six domains of r/s struggle: divine (negative emotion centered on beliefs about God or a perceived relationship with God), demonic (concern that the devil or evil spirits are attacking an individual or causing negative events), interpersonal (concern about negative experiences with religious people or institutions; interpersonal conflict around religious issues), moral (wrestling with attempts to follow moral principles; worry or guilt about perceived offenses by the self), doubt (feeling troubled by doubts or questions about one’s r/s beliefs), and ultimate meaning (concern about not perceiving deep meaning in one’s life).
The Brief RCOPE also contains items related to spiritual struggles but is more focused on coping than the RSS  I reviewed here. Also note, in the article about the RSS (Exline et al., 2014), the authors view negative religious coping as another way of framing RS struggles.

Scale items

See the references for a complete list of the items and the domains. See the quote above for a description of the items within each of the six domains.

Each item is rated on a 5-point scale where 1 = not at all/does not apply and 5 = a great deal. Researchers average the item scores to obtain a total score and subscale scores.

Spiritual Struggles and Mental Health

All of the RSS subscales predicted mental health criteria.*

The best predictors of emotional distress related to religious and spiritual struggles were the Ultimate Meaning and Divine subscales of the RSS.

The RSS Interpersonal and Moral subscales predicted loneliness

The functioning of the RSS Doubt subscale suggested the possibility that in some cases doubt might not link to distress.

*Mental health variables were: Depression, Anxiety, State Anger, Life satisfaction, Loneliness, and Presence of life meaning


Creating a Survey

The RSSS and other measures may be added to surveys along with other items when researchers follow the permission instructions. Learn more about Creating Surveys. Creating Surveys is available on AMAZON. Creating Surveys is  an easy to read and recommended text and resource required by professors at graduate and undergraduate universities.















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Related Posts

Religious and Spiritual Coping

Spiritual Struggles

The Brief RCOPE scale

Attachment to God Inventory


References

Exline, Julie J., Pargament, Kenneth I., Grubbs, Joshua B., & Yali, Ann Marie. (2014). The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 208-222. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036465

Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., Grubbs, J. B., & Yali, A. M. (2014). Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t36191-000


The RSS scale contains items that may be useful to clinicians considering religious and spiritual concerns raised by counseling clients.

Learn more about counseling statistics in Applied Statistics: Concepts for Counselors, Second Edition















Connections

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Publications (many free downloads)
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Sunday, January 12, 2020

Religious Coping: The Brief RCOPE scale



The Brief RCOPE scale is a 14-item measure of religious coping developed and studied by Kenneth Pargament (e.g., 1997) and his colleagues. The scale is based on coping theory applied to religion and aims to help researchers understand one relationship between people and their religion when they experience a stressful life experience.

Research supports two dimensions of coping reflected in the scale: positive and negative. These two dimensions are reflected in two subscales of the Brief RCOPE labeled accordingly as Positive Religious Coping Subscale (PRC) and Negative Religious Subscale (NRC).

Positive coping means drawing upon spiritual resources in a way that helps people cope with stressful events. Such people may have a secure relationship with God or a higher power, hold a benevolent worldview, and have positive relationships with religious others.

Negative religious coping indicates intrapersonal religious or spiritual struggles. The conflict may be experienced as personal tension, conflicts with God, or religious others.

Five Dimensions of Religious Coping

The coping scales address five dimensions of religious coping, which Pargament et al. (2011, p. 56) phrase in goal language using the phrase “Religious methods of coping to…” followed by a specific dimension as follows:

            find meaning
            gain control
            gain comfort and closeness to God
            gain intimacy with others and closeness to God
            achieve a life transformation

The Brief version of the RCOPE has 14-items and is the most commonly used measure of religious coping.

Researchers have used the Brief RCOPE with people from different ethnic groups and religious groups. Most studies in 1 2011 review were based on US samples (Pargament, Feuille, & Brudzy).

Psychometric findings

Reliability: The median alpha values for the scores from the two subscales based on thousands of participants (Pargament et al., 2011) were: PRC = .92 and NRC = .81.

The relationship between the two scales is orthogonal based on most factor analyses but there are some low association values in some studies.

Validity: Several studies support the conclusion that the RCOPE usually produces adequate validity values in relationship to measures of spirituality such as wellbeing and post-traumatic growth.

RCOPE Items

The items for the RCOPE and the Brief RCOPE can be found in a downloadable pdf available 12 January 2020 ( I cannot guarantee the link will always be operative.)



See Also

Concept Links for Additional Reading


Concepts in Blog
Book Chapter

Median, Averages
8 On Average
15 Survey Results
Reliability
20 Test Score Reliability
17 Survey Reliability
Validity
21 Test Score Validity
18 Survey Validity
Religious/ Spiritual measures

Chapter 13
Factor Analysis
23 Reading Complex Statistics
18 Survey Validity

Cite This Blog Post

Sutton, G.W. (2020, January 12). Religious Coping: The Brief RCOPE scale. Assessment, Statistics, & Research. https://statistics.suttong.com/ 2020/01/religious-coping-brief-rcope-scale.html


Religious Coping References

Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research,practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Pargament, K., Feuille, M., & Burdzy, D. (2011). The brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions, 2 (1), 51-76. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel2010051

See the reference section in the above references for extensive references to the RCOPE in research.


Connections

My Page    www.suttong.com
  
My Books  AMAZON                       GOOGLE STORE

FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton
TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

Publications (many free downloads)
 
Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)     

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)


 















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