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Showing posts with the label analysis of variance

### ANCOVA in Counseling & Behavioral Research

ANCOVA ANCOVA is a procedure like ANOVA except researchers can study the effects of one or more independent variables on a dependent variable after adjusting for other variables, called covariates , which were not a primary focus of the study. The letter C in ANCOVA stands for covariate . There can be several covariates in a study. In testing for differences among groups experiencing different leadership styles, we could study the effects on employee satisfaction after adjusting for a covariate of years of employment. A key word in ANCOVA studies is adjusting . Analysts adjust the scores based on information about the covariate before testing for significant differences. Basic features of an ANCOVA: Independent or grouping Variable = 1 or more Dependent or criterion Variable = 1 Covariates = 1 or more An  F  test indicates significance overall and for specific effects or relationships. A commonly reported measure of effect size is eta squared. A  p  value reveals the probabilit

### ANOVA in Counseling & Psychology Research

There are several types of ANOVA procedures. The term ANOVA refers to Analysis of Variance . Variance is a statistical term we will review later. Variance refers to differences, so the ANOVA procedures examine differences in scores among groups of people who complete a survey, a test, or produce a scorable response. For example, an ANOVA can be used to assess the effects of three temperatures on math. The Independent Variable is temperature varies three ways (75, 85, 95 degrees F). The dependent variable is math. The dependent measure of math is a math test. When there is only one independent variable (IV), the ANOVA is called a one-way ANOVA. If there are two IVs the ANOVA is a two-way ANOVA, and so forth. It is rare to go beyond a four-way because the interpretation of interactions is complicated. The ANOVA procedure is usually reported with an F value. The larger the F value, the more likely it is that the differences the researchers found are not due to chance. There may be s

### Take a brief Counseling Test Quiz 101

Can you answer these questions that every counselor ought to know? Choose the BEST available answer. I'll post the answers below. 1. If the correlation between a test of intelligence and a test of achievement is usually between .88 and .92, how well can you use the intelligence test results to predict achievement test results? A. Very well B. Moderately well C. Not well at all D. None of the above 2. A personality test score was high on a scale of Extraversion. The validity of the Extraversion scale was reported as .52 to .57 compared to similar tests. How much confidence should the person have that their score is "valid?" A. A high degree B. A moderate degree C. A low degree D. None of the above 3. School counselors administered a questionnaire to 1,000 students. They calculated results for answers about four school improvements rated on a scale of 1 to 5. Most of the scores were in the range of 18 to 20. The counselors reported a mean rating o