Friday, April 30, 2021


 Kurtosis is a statistical concept. The value indicates whether a distribution is similar to the normal curve or different from the normal curve. Compared to the normal curve, kurtotic distributions of data appear either peaked in the middle or flat. In a normal distribution, the value of kurtosis = 0.

The peaked distribution has a positive value. It's called leptokurtic (think leap).

The flatter distribution has a negative value. It's called platykurtic (think of the animal, Platypus).

There are different formulas for calculating kurtosis.

In Excel, the function for kurtosis can be found under Formulas, More Functions. In the drop down list, choose KURT.

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Tuesday, April 27, 2021

Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire


Scale name:

Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire,  SCSRF, SCSRFQ

Short form as an “Abbreviated” form, ASCSRFQ

Scale overview

A short easy to score measure of the strength of a person’s religious or spiritual faith. It is a available in 10-item and 5-item Likert-type scale formats.

Author(s) Thomas G. Plante and Marcus T. Boccaccini introduced the 10-item version in 1997.

Items: 10 and 5 for the short form


Response Type: 4-point self-report rating scale

Subscales: None


Sample items

2. I pray daily.

10. My faith impacts many of my decisions.

The short form uses the following 5-items: 2,4,5,8 (Plante et al., 2002).


In the 1997 article, psychology students M = 26.39, SD  = 8.55, R = 33, Mdn = 26.

A summary of previous studies using the 10-item version (Plante, 2010) found M = 26-33 in college samples with SD  = 6 to 8.

There were no significant differences between the means of men (M = 17.48, SD  = 2.52) and women (M = 18.36, SD  = 2.26) on the short form (Sutton et al., 2007).


10-item Cronbach’s Alpha = .95 (1997). Several studies found alphas .94 to .97 (Plante, 2010). Link to test score reliability.



“High scores on the SCSORF were positively correlated with perceived coping, hope, and belief in exaggerated control (r's = .20 to .27, p's < .05),~and negatively correlated with low self-esteem, depression, God control, and interpersonal sensitivity (r's = .20 to .40, p's < .05).” (p. 382; Plante & Boccaccini, 1997)

See also a summary of findings in Plante (2010).

The 5-item version had strong positive correlations with the 10-item version (.95 to .99) according to Plante (2010).

High ASCSRFQ scores were significantly positively correlated with Willingness to Forgive (.366) and pastor restoration (.305) measures. The ASCSRFQ was not significantly related to the Anxiety subscale of the Attachment to God Inventory but it was significantly negatively correlated with the Avoidance subscale (-.309). (Sutton et al., 2007).

Learn more about test score validity.

Learn more about correlations.


The 10 item scale is in the appendix on page 385 of the 1997 article.

For the 5-item scale, see Plante et al. (2002).

 SCOPES domain = Self/spirituality

Permissions -- if identified

Cite this post

Sutton, G.W. (2021, April 27). Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. Retrieved from 


Plante, T.G. (2010). The Santa Clara strength of religious faith questionnaire: Assessing faith engagement in a brief and nondenominational manner. Religions, 1, 3-8. DOI: 10.3390/rel1010003

Plante, T. G. & Boccaccini, M.T. (1997).  The Santa Clara strength of religious faith questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology, 45, 375-387. [This is the 10-item reference.]  Link

Plante, T.G., Vallaeys, C.L., Sherman, A.C. et al. The Development of a Brief Version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology 50, 359–368 (2002). [This is the 5-item reference.]

Sutton, G. W., McLeland, K. C., Weaks, K. Cogswell, P. E., & Miphouvieng, R. N. (2007). Does gender matter? An exploration of gender, spirituality, forgiveness and restoration following pastor transgressions. Pastoral Psychology. 55, 645-663. doi 10.1007/ s11089-007-0072-3 Online Link n11144j1655536l2/ Academia link Research Gate Link


Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE





Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE




Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


 Links to Connections

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Monday, April 26, 2021

Coefficient Alpha or Cronbach's Alpha

 Coefficient Alpha (also called "alpha") is a statistical value indicating the degree of internal consistency of items in a multiple-item scale like survey items or Likert-type scales.

Internal consistency is one measure of reliability for scores from scales, measures, and survey items.

The alpha statistic was developed by Lee Cronbach in 1951 thus it is also called Cronbach's alpha. In research reports, you may just see the Greek lower case letter alpha, α.

The procedure to calculate alpha can be found in SPSS under Analyze > Scale > Reliabilty.

For research purposes, scales with alpha levels equal to or above alpha = .70 are acceptable. The best scales have values of alpha = .9 or higher.

The alpha method works best to evaluate unidimensional measures. If there are two or more dimensions in a set of items, the alpha value will be lower so, when alpha values are low, consider which item or items do not support the primary dimension.

Cite this Post

Sutton, G.W. (2021, April 26). Coefficient Alpha or Cronbach’s Alpha. Retrieved from

Learn more about statistics in Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON   or   GOOGLE

Learn more about surveys and statistics in Creating Surveys on    AMAZON or    GOOGLE

Please check out my website

   and see my books on   AMAZON       or  GOOGLE STORE

Also, consider connecting with me on    FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton    

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton    

You can read many published articles at no charge:

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton     ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

Adult Decision Making Competence ADMC

  Measure name: Adult Decision-Making Competence ADMC Overview: The Adult Decision-Making Competence measure consists of a set of seven d...