Showing posts with label Spiritual and religious struggles. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Spiritual and religious struggles. Show all posts

Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ) by Kathryn Hope Keller

 


Scale name: Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)

Scale overview: The SAQ is a 17-item self-report questionnaire.

Author: Kathryn Hope Keller

 

Response Type: 4-point Likert type. The choices are: Strongly disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly agree.

Subscales and Sample Items: There are two subscales.

1. Power-based Affective Wounding: “At times, I was

scolded by my leader and made to feel ashamed and helpless” and “I now feel cynical

about church/religious groups.”

 

2. Conditionality: “I believed I could be totally surrendered to God if I did everything

perfectly according to the church/group’s instructions,” and “I believed God would

punish me if I didn’t do what my church/group encouraged me to do.”

Reliability: Alpha for the 17-item scale was .95 (Keller, 2016). The study sample was 271 and the mean was 50.62 (SD = 14.87, SEM = .90) and Min-Max were 21-80.

Validity: Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution.

For the RSS, r=.76, p<.01. For the subscales, results are as follows: Divine Struggles, r=.68, p<.01; Demonic Struggles, r=.31, p<.01; Interpersonal Struggles, r=.81, p<.01; Moral Struggles, r=.52, p<.01; Doubt Struggle, r=.66, p<.01; and Ultimate Meaning Struggles, r=.54, p<.01. These findings suggest that participants with higher levels of spiritual abuse also experience higher levels of religious and spiritual struggles. (Keller, 2016, page 138)

 

Note. The RSS is the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale

 Availability: See pages 226-227 in the dissertation reference below.

Related Posts

Spiritual and Religious Abuse

Spiritual and Religious Harassment


Permissions -- if identified

Author contact in 2021 https://www.kellerpsychology.com/drkeller.html 

 Reference

Keller, K.R. (2016). Development of a spiritual abuse questionnaire. Dissertation available from https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/8760

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

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Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale Julie Exline et al.

The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS) assesses six domains of potential struggles, which people may experience. The RSS is a 26-item measure with strong psychometric support.




For a list of the items and more details, see the reference below (Exline, Pargament, Grubbs, & Yali, 2014).

Based on Exline et al. (2014) and a general reading of the topic, I define religious/ spiritual (RS) struggles as experiences of personal concern linked to RS beliefs, practices, values, or experiences, which negatively affect thinking, feelings, or behavior, relationships, or health.


The Six Domains of Spiritual Struggles

Following is a quote from page 208 of the 2014 article, which describes the six domains. I have added bold text to help readers identify each domain. Note, r/s is a common abbreviation for religious/spiritual.
The measure assesses six domains of r/s struggle: divine (negative emotion centered on beliefs about God or a perceived relationship with God), demonic (concern that the devil or evil spirits are attacking an individual or causing negative events), interpersonal (concern about negative experiences with religious people or institutions; interpersonal conflict around religious issues), moral (wrestling with attempts to follow moral principles; worry or guilt about perceived offenses by the self), doubt (feeling troubled by doubts or questions about one’s r/s beliefs), and ultimate meaning (concern about not perceiving deep meaning in one’s life).
The Brief RCOPE also contains items related to spiritual struggles but is more focused on coping than the RSS  I reviewed here. Also note, in the article about the RSS (Exline et al., 2014), the authors view negative religious coping as another way of framing RS struggles.

Scale items

See the references for a complete list of the items and the domains. See the quote above for a description of the items within each of the six domains.

Each item is rated on a 5-point scale where 1 = not at all/does not apply and 5 = a great deal. Researchers average the item scores to obtain a total score and subscale scores.

Spiritual Struggles and Mental Health

All of the RSS subscales predicted mental health criteria.*

The best predictors of emotional distress related to religious and spiritual struggles were the Ultimate Meaning and Divine subscales of the RSS.

The RSS Interpersonal and Moral subscales predicted loneliness

The functioning of the RSS Doubt subscale suggested the possibility that in some cases doubt might not link to distress.

Mental health variables were: Depression, Anxiety, State Anger, Life satisfaction, Loneliness, and Presence of life meaning

Reliability and Validity
The 2014 publication includes extensive details of the RSS development, including data supporting adequate reliability and validity values and construct validity. Alpha values ranged from .85 to .93 across the six subscales in the development study of 1141 undergraduates. 


Creating a Survey

The RSSS and other measures may be added to surveys along with other items when researchers follow the permission instructions. Learn more about Creating Surveys. Creating Surveys is  an easy to read and recommended text and resource required by professors at graduate and undergraduate universities.

Creating Surveys on AMAZON    or   GOOGLE  Worldwide













Permission and copyright (from PsycTESTS):
Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2020, January 22).  Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale Julie Exline et al. Retrieved from https://statistics.suttong.com/2020/01/religious-and-spiritual-struggles-scale.html

Related Posts


Religious and Spiritual Coping

Spiritual Struggles

The Brief RCOPE scale

Attachment to God Inventory

Resource Link- list of tests on this blog:  A – Z Test Index


References

Exline, Julie J., Pargament, Kenneth I., Grubbs, Joshua B., & Yali, Ann Marie. (2014). The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 208-222. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036465

Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., Grubbs, J. B., & Yali, A. M. (2014). Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t36191-000


The RSS scale contains items that may be useful to clinicians considering religious and spiritual concerns raised by counseling clients.

Learn more about counseling statistics inApplied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE















See how to include spirituality and other items in survey research in Creating Surveys on AMAZON    or    GOOGLE










Connections

   My Page    www.suttong.com
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Publications (many free downloads)
  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)     
  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)




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