Monday, April 25, 2022

Spiritual Assessment & Counseling Trauma Survivors



Completing a set of scales is not always the best way to assess spirituality at the beginning of psychotherapy. Nevertheless, I agree with others (e.g., Richards, et al., 2015; Worthington et al., 1996) that the assessment of spirituality is important to counseling and psychotherapy because so many people report that their faith is important to them and many prefer to receive psychotherapy from someone who shares their faith or at least respects their faith.

The assessment of spirituality in the context of psychotherapy should also be in the context of other assessment such as within the SCOPES model where spirituality, if important to a patient, is usually a part of the self-identity and interconnected with their emotions, thoughts, social relationships, and personality (See the SCOPES model for details).

In this post, I will review suggestions from Richards et al. (2015) and include a link to other posts containing measures from which clinicians can draw questions to use in clinical work or practice-based assessment.

Early questions to ask (pp. 82-83)

“Is religion or spirituality important in your life?”

“Do you wish to discuss religious or spiritual issues during counseling?” 

“Are you aware of any religious or spiritual resources in your life that could be used to help you?” 

“How do you think your spirituality can help you in your therapy goals?”

Trauma related questions p. 83

The authors suggest additional questions related to the presenting trauma. The questions are adapted by the clinician to fit with the patient's narrative of the traumatic experience.

“How do you feel this traumatic experience has affected your spiritual and religious life?” 

“Did this trauma cause any spiritual damage in your life?” 

“Has this trauma caused any confusion, questions, or changes in your religious or spiritual beliefs?” 

“What kind of spiritual needs do you have now in the aftermath of this trauma?”

How spirituality helps p. 84

Richards et al. remind readers that trauma does not always weaken faith. Spirituality can be helpful. Here are some related questions.

“What are some of your spiritual strengths that you still have, even after this traumatic experience?” 

“In what ways has your religious community and/or your spiritual beliefs helped you cope with the trauma you have experienced?” 

“What are some of the spiritual resources in your life that can help you recover?”

Cite this post:

Sutton, G. W. (2022, April 25). Spiritual assessment & counseling trauma survivors. Statistics. SuttonG. Retrieved from https://statistics.suttong.com/2022/04/spiritual-assessment-counseling-trauma.html

Link to Spirituality Questionnaires


References

Richards, P. S., Hardman, R. K., Lea, T., & Berrett, M. E. (2015). Religious and spiritual assessment of trauma survivors. In Spiritually oriented psychotherapy for trauma. (pp. 77–102). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14500-005 

  Book Link https://amzn.to/3KdgaA3 

Sutton, G. W. (2022, April 25). Spiritual assessment & counseling trauma survivors. Statistics. SuttonG. Retrieved from https://statistics.suttong.com/2022/04/spiritual-assessment-counseling-trauma.html

Worthington, E. L. Jr., Kurusu, T. A., McCullough, M. E., & Sanders, S. J. (1996). Empirical research on religion and psychotherapeutic processes and outcomes: A ten-year review and research prospectus. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 448–487. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.3.448

Related book by  Psychologist Jamie Aten


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Thursday, April 21, 2022

Workplace Arrogance Scale (WARS)

 


Scale name: Workplace Arrogance Scale (WARS)

Scale overview: The 26-item Workplace Arrogance Scale measures arrogance in the workplace based on self-report using a 5-point rating scale.

Authors: Russell E. Johnson of Michigan State University and others—see the article reference for the author list.

Response Type: A 5-point Likert type rating scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree

Sample items:

1. Believes that s/he knows better than everyone else in any given situation

2. Makes decisions that impact others without listening to their input

Reliability: The 26-item WARS alpha was .93 in Johnson et al., 2010.

Validity Factor analysis indicated a one-factor scale. Arrogance was positively correlated with dominance, anger, superiority, entitlement, and vanity.

Arrogance was negatively correlated with humility, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and self-sufficiency. Arrogance was not related to authority.

Availability: See Table A1 on page 427 of the 2010 article for the 26 items.

Contact: Russell E. Johnson, johnsonr@bus.msu.edu

 

Reference

Johnson, R. E., Silverman, S. B., Shyamsunder, A., Swee, H.-Y., Rodopman, O. B., Cho, E., & Bauer, J. (2010). Acting superior but actually inferior?: Correlates and consequences of workplace arrogance. Human Performance23(5), 403–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2010.515279

Human Performance is a Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group journal.

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 




Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 





Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


 

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Thursday, April 14, 2022

Burnout - Oldenburg Burnout Inventory OLBI




Scale name: Oldenburg Burnout Inventory OLBI

Scale overview: The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) measures multiple aspects of worker burnout with 16 items addressing 1. Exhaustion (physical, cognitive, affective) and 2. Disengagement from work (negative attitudes).

  Read more about burnout

Authors: Demerouti et al.

Response Type: 4-point Likert-type

Strongly Agree = 1

Agree = 2

Disagree = 3

Strongly Disagree = 4

 

Subscales (with item numbers):

  Exhaustion  (2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16)

  Disengagement (1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15)

Sample items

  I always find new and interesting aspects in my work

  I always find new and interesting aspects in my work

Reliability

Validity: Researchers have studied the factor structure in several samples.

Availability

An online version was available at this link https://www.mdapp.co/oldenburg-burnout-inventory-olbi-calculator-606/

The link above also included a full list of the 16 items.

Note: Some items are reverse scored.

References

Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Vardako I, Kantas A. The convergent validity of two burnout instruments. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 2003; 19(1),12–23.

Delgadillo J, Saxon D, Barkham M. Associations between therapists' occupational burnout and their patients' depression and anxiety treatment outcomes. Depress Anxiety. 2018; 35(9):844-850.

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 

 

 

 

Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 

 

 

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 

 

 

Links to Connections

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Monday, April 11, 2022

Biblical Conservatism - A 4-item measure

 


Scale name: Biblical Conservatism Measure

Scale overview: The Biblical Conservatism Measure is a 4-item scale designed to assess conservative beliefs about the Bible, Koran, or Torah.

Authors: Weyand, O’Laughlin, & Bennett

Response Type: Items are rated on a 4-point Likert type scale from 1 = strongly disagree and 4 – strongly agree.

Sample item:

The Bible/Koran/Torah/other religious text is God’s word and everything will happen exactly as it says.

 

Psychometrics:

In the 2013 study 1, M = 10.07, SD = 3.4

Reliability: Internal consistency = .75 (Weand et al., (2013).

Validity: See how the measure performed with other measures in the full article below.

Availability:  See the PsycTESTS reference for the items.

Permissions

 

“Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission.  Distribution must be controlled.”

 Other measures used in the study

Brief RCOPE (Religious coping)

Sanctification of Parenting scale

References

  Weyand, C., O’Laughlin, L., & Bennett, P. (2013). Biblical Conservatism Measure [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t28364-000

 Weyand, C., O'Laughlin, L., & Bennett, P. (2013). Dimensions of religiousness that influence parenting. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5(3), 182-191. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030627

 

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 




Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 









Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


Related Measures

👉  Biblical Literalism Scale

👉  Intratextual Fundamentalism Scale


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Wednesday, April 6, 2022

Faith Situations Questionnaire FSQ

 



Scale name: Faith Situations Questionnaire FSQ

Scale overview: Caregivers provide information about the presence and severity of 19 child behavior problems in faith situations. Scores may be compared to norms for children age 5-12.

Authors: Hathaway, Douglas, & Grabowski

Response Type: Raters answer each item as present or absent and if present, the item is rated on a 9-point scale where 9 = the highest severe rating.

Sample items:

Instructions: Does your child present any problems with compliance to instructions, commands, or rules for you in any of these situations? If so, please circle the word Yes and then circle a number beside that situation that describes how severe the problem is for you. If your child is not a problem in a situation, circle No and go on to the next situation on the form.              

When saying prayers

During a religious instruction class, such as Sunday school, catechism or Hebrew school

Psychometrics: The FSQ sample was similar to the 2000 US census data for gender and race. They also included the percentage of Christian groups to match the census data.

Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha of .92 for the normative sample (n = 249) of children ages 5-12

Validity: The article below includes useful information showing appropriate correlations with ADHD and ODD symptoms.

Availability: See the article for a copy.

Permissions: The scale may be copied for clinical use.

 

Reference

Hathaway, W. L., Douglas, D., & Grabowski, K. (2003). Faith Situations Questionnaire: Childhood normative data. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 22, 141–154.

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 




Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 





 

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

A reference for Christian parenting

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 The photo is for illustration purposes only


 

 

 

Saturday, April 2, 2022

Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences

 


Scale name: Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences

Scale overview:

The 24-item Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences (MADE) was designed to evaluate the stress experiences of people who identify as atheists using a 6-point rating scale.

Authors: Brewster, M. E., Hammer, J., Sawyer, J. S., Eklund, A., & Palamar, J.

Response Type:  6-point Likert-type; 1 = never, 6 = almost all of the time

Subscales: There are five factors

Immoral

Bringing Shame

Asked to Pass

Overt Maltreatment

Social Ostracism

 

Sample items

Immoral - I have been told that, as an atheist, I cannot be a moral person.

 

Bringing Shame - I have been told that I am selfish because I am atheist.

 

Asked to Pass - I have been asked to go along with religious traditions to avoid “stirring up trouble.”

 

Overt Maltreatment - People have denied me services because of my atheism.

 

Social Ostracism - Because of my atheism, others have avoided me.

 

 

Reliability: The 2016 article includes Cronbach’s alphas of .94 and .95

Validity: The 2016 article contains findings of a factor analysis and convergent validity.

Availability:

See the PsycTESTS reference below for a copy of the scale.

See also the article available in the journal reference and on ResearchGate

Permissions -- if identified

Contact the correspondence author: Melanie E. Brewster melanie.brewster@tc.columbia.edu

 

References:

Brewster, M. E., Hammer, J., Sawyer, J. S., Eklund, A., & Palamar, J. (2016). Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t58211-000

Brewster, Melanie E., Hammer, Joseph, Sawyer, Jacob S., Eklund, Austin, & Palamar, Joseph. (2016). Perceived experiences of atheist discrimination: Instrument development and evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 63(5), 557-570. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000156

 

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 




Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 








Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

  

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Parent-Child Relationship Scale CPRS Review

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