Showing posts with label Christian parenting. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Christian parenting. Show all posts

Saturday, June 18, 2022

Dad Data Single Parents and Children

When it comes to family structure, there's been considerable change in the United States.

According to the 2020 census data from, 70 percent of American children live in a two-parent home--that is down from 85% in 1968.

About 15.5% of children only live with their mothers.

About 4.5 of children only live with their fathers.

About 4% of children are not living with their parents- they may be with other relatives including grandparents.

The link to the data

Does it matter? Two Studies

The analyses found that children in nondisrupted two-biological-parent and nondisrupted stepparent households consistently made greater progress in their math and reading performances over time than their peers in nondisrupted single-parent, disrupted two-biological-parent, and disrupted alternative families with multiple transitions. Sun & Li 2011

Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity score-matched sample of children from intact families according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents’ separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 for teacher reports, or age 15 for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of pre-divorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their post-divorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. Weaver & Schofield, 2015


Evidence-based parenting

Discipline with Respect  on  AMAZON

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Wednesday, April 6, 2022

Faith Situations Questionnaire FSQ


Scale name: Faith Situations Questionnaire FSQ

Scale overview: Caregivers provide information about the presence and severity of 19 child behavior problems in faith situations. Scores may be compared to norms for children age 5-12.

Authors: Hathaway, Douglas, & Grabowski

Response Type: Raters answer each item as present or absent and if present, the item is rated on a 9-point scale where 9 = the highest severe rating.

Sample items:

Instructions: Does your child present any problems with compliance to instructions, commands, or rules for you in any of these situations? If so, please circle the word Yes and then circle a number beside that situation that describes how severe the problem is for you. If your child is not a problem in a situation, circle No and go on to the next situation on the form.              

When saying prayers

During a religious instruction class, such as Sunday school, catechism or Hebrew school

Psychometrics: The FSQ sample was similar to the 2000 US census data for gender and race. They also included the percentage of Christian groups to match the census data.

Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha of .92 for the normative sample (n = 249) of children ages 5-12

Validity: The article below includes useful information showing appropriate correlations with ADHD and ODD symptoms.

Availability: See the article for a copy.

Permissions: The scale may be copied for clinical use.



Hathaway, W. L., Douglas, D., & Grabowski, K. (2003). Faith Situations Questionnaire: Childhood normative data. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 22, 141–154.

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE





Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE




Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


A reference for Christian parenting

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Links to Connections

Checkout My Website


See my Books





FOLLOW me on

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Read published articles:


  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   


  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

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Saturday, September 14, 2019

Sanctification of Parenting Scale Revised

Mahoney, Pargament and deMaris (2009) published a revised scale that examines beliefs of  a mother toward her child.

The authors advise researchers that they may change the word "baby" to other child age labels depending on the age of the children in their study. Thus, researchers may use labels of "toddler," "child," or "teen" in place of "baby."


Although the authors use the word God, the instructions invite participants to use their own word for the deity. Following is a copy of the instructions. Notice the different term for the scale's name.

Revised Manifestation of God in Parenting:

Directions: Some of the following questions use the word "God." Different people use different terms for God, such as "Higher Power," "Divine Spirit," "Spiritual Force," "Holy Spirit," "Yahweh," "Allah,", "Buddha”, or “Goddess.” Please feel free to substitute your own word for God when answering any of the questions that follow. Also, some people do not believe in God. If this is the case for you, please feel free to choose the "strongly disagree" response when needed.
   Sample items
1) God played a role in my baby coming into my life.
 2) I sense God's presence in my relationship with my baby.

There are 10-items in the scale. Participants are asked to respond on a 1 to 7 scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree, 4 = neutral, and 7 = Strongly Disagree.

Learn more about integrating faith and parenting in Discipline with Respect: Christian Family Edition. No charge to read for those with Kindle Unlimited.  BUY ON AMAZON

Revised Sacred Qualities of Parenting

The authors include a second set of 10-items, rated on the same 7-point scale to assess the sacred qualities of parenting. Following are two examples of this scale.

     1) My baby seems like a miracle to me.

     2) Being a mother feels like a deeply spiritual experience.


You can find the full scale at this link:


The full reference to the Mahoney et al. (2009) scale is below.

Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., & DeMaris, A. (2009). Couples viewing marriage and pregnancy
through the lens of the Sacred: A descriptive study. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 20, 1-45.

Learn more about Creating Surveys in the book, Creating Surveys on AMAZON.

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Links to Connections

Checkout My Page


My Books  AMAZON          and             GOOGLE STORE


FOLLOW me on   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton




Articles: Academia   Geoff W Sutton   ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 


Parent-Child Relationship Scale CPRS Review

  Scale name: Parent-Child Relationship Scale CPRS Scale overview: The Parent-Child Relationship Scale (CPRS) is a 15-item parent self-re...