Skip to main content


Showing posts from March, 2023

Spiritual Meaning Scale (SMS)

  Scale overview: The Spiritual Meaning Scale (SMS) was developed to measure a person’s belief in a meaningful life, which may include the idea that life has a purpose (Mascaro et al., 2004). A revised version has 15 items (Mascaro & Rosen, 2006).   Authors: Mascaro and Rosen Response Type: Each item is rated on a five-point scale of personal agreement from 1 = I totally disagree to 5 = I totally agree. Scale items Psychometric properties Mascaro (2006) reported evidence of good internal and test-retest reliability. Validity evidence includes significant positive correlations with hope and significant negative correlations with depression and hopelessness. Availability: See Mascaro, N. (29 October 2006) below. References for the scale Mascaro, N. (29 October 2006). Longitudinal analysis of the relationship of existential meaning with depression and hope. Dissertation retrieved from Longitudinal analysis of the relationship of existential meaning with depres

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

  Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique that is widely used in psychology and related fields to examine the relationships between observed variables and latent constructs. In SEM, a theoretical model is specified in which the relationships between latent constructs and observed variables are represented by a set of equations.   An example of the application of SEM in counseling psychology might involve examining the relationship between different types of coping strategies and symptoms of depression. The model might include several latent constructs such as avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and depression, as well as observed variables such as self-reported coping behaviors and measures of depressive symptoms. SEM would allow researchers to test the strength and direction of the relationships between these constructs and variables, as well as the overall fit of the model to the data. An Example Smith, J. K., Johnson, L. M., & Jones, R. T. (20

Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS)

  Assessment name:   Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) Scale overview: The Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) is a 12-item self-report instrument focused on problems linked to viewing pornography (Kor et al., 2014a; 2014b). Authors: Ariel Kors and others Response Type: Items are rated on a six-point scale of truth values (0 = Never True, 1 = Rarely True, 2 = Sometimes True, 3 = Often True, 4 = Very Often True, 5 = Almost Always True). Scale items The researchers identified four factors: Excessive Use, Use to Escape/Avoid Negative Emotions, Self-control Difficulties, Distress and Functional Problems. Each factor is measured with three items. Psychometric properties Internal consistency values were good to high and there is evidence supporting construct and convergent validity. Availability: See Kor et al. 2014a for the list of items linked to each factor. Read a definition of pornography Reference for the scale Kor, A., Zilcha-Mano, S., Fogel, Y. A.,

Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS)

Assessment name:   Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS) Scale overview: The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS) is a 19-item self-report measure of religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The 2007 revision has 15 items. The authors, some of whom had clinical experience with OCD, suggest the PIOS is useful for research and clinical practice. Authors: Abramowitz and other- See the 2002 reference below. For the 15-item revision, see Olatunji et al. (2007).   Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of symptom frequency from 0 = never to 4 = constantly. Scale items In religious participants, the PIOS has yielded two factors: Fear of God and Fear of Sin. The items refer to worries about unacceptable thoughts and actions from God’s perspective and other items refer to worries about immoral thoughts and behavior without mentioning God.   Psychometric properties The authors reported strong values for internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed two factors. Cor

Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS)

  Perfectionism image created by G Sutton 2023 Assessment name:   Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) Scale overview: The Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) is a 10-item self-report measure of perfectionism , which is associated with a person's perceptions of God’s standards and expectations. Authors: Kenneth T. Wang, G. E. Kawika Allen, Hannah I. Stokes, Han Na Suh       Read more about the psychology of perfectionism. Response Type:  The 10 PPGS items are rated on a 7-point scale of agreement from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. Scale items There are two factors or subscales each having five items. The Perceived Discrepancy from God subscale examines perceived discrepancies between a person’s behavior and God’s standards. The Perceived Standards from God subscale examines perceptions of God’s expectations for a person’s behavior. Psychometric properties The authors provide means and standard deviations, coefficient alpha valu