Wednesday, January 25, 2023

Projective Testing

 



In psychological assessment using projective tests, clinicians provide patients with ambiguous words, sentences, or images and look for themes in their response patterns that indicate the person's mood, anxieties, needs, motives, attitudes, and conflicts about which the person may have varied degrees of awareness.

In order to improve the reliability of scoring, some researchers developed scoring systems, which allowed for the examination of consistency among different clinicians scoring the same record and validity studies linking test results to clinical diagnoses or other measures less reliant on clinical judgment. These scoring systems have been challenged in terms of reliability and validity of the scores.

Classic psychological tests based on the projective hypothesis include the Rorschach Inkblot test, the Thematic Apperception Test, House-Tree-Person Test, and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. There are many other tests along these lines.


Following are examples of a few classic projective tests.

The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a standard series of ten cards presented to patients one at a time. Some cards are greyscale and some include color. The patient's responses are recorded and scored based on a scoring system. The test was developed by Hermann Rorschach, a Swiss psychiatrist, in 1921. A popular scoring system was developed by American psychologist, John Exner in 1974. Exner's system is also known as the Rorschach Comprehensive System. Researchers have criticized the reliability and validity of Exner's system. Meyer et al. (2002) provided evidence of good interrater reliability values. For a critique, see Mihura et al. (2013, 2018).

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a standard set of greyscale images. The TAT was developed by Henry Murray in consultation with Christiana D. Morgan in the 1930s to assist in the assessment of patient's needs according to Murray's Need Theory. Examples of needs include achievement, dominance, and autonomy. Patients are asked to tell a story in response to the picture on the card. The responses are scored according to a system. The reliability and validity of the scores have been criticized (e.g., see Kasky-Hernández, 2017). 

The Draw- A-Man Test was developed by Florence Goodenough in 1926 as a way to assess children's intelligence.

The House-Tree-Person Test (HTP) includes the drawing adds the drawing of a house and a tree and does not specify the gender of the person as in the Draw A Man test. Scoring may include quantitative and qualitative methods to assess intelligence, cognitions, emotions, and attitudes based upon features within the drawings and the patient's response to a standard set of questions. Problems of reliability and validity are an issue. See for example Lin et al. (2022).

References

Kasky-Hernández, L. (2017). Thematic Apperception Test. In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Shackelford, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_955-1

Lin, Y., Zhang, N., Qu, Y., Li, T., Liu, J., & Song, Y. (2022). The House-Tree-Person test is not valid for the prediction of mental health: An empirical study using deep neural networks. Acta psychologica230, 103734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103734

Meyer, G. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Baxter, D., Exner, J. E., Jr, Fowler, J. C., Piers, C. C., & Resnick, J. (2002). An examination of interrater reliability for scoring the Rorschach Comprehensive System in eight data sets. Journal of personality assessment78(2), 219–274. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7802_03

Mihura, J.L., Meyer, G.J., Dumitrascu, N., & Bombel, G. (2013). The validity of 
individual Rorschach variables: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the 
comprehensive system. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 548-605. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029406

Mihura, J.L., Bombel, G., Dumitrascu, N., Roy, M., & Meadows, E. A.
(2018). Why we need a formal systematic approach to validating psychological 
tests: The case of the Rorschach Comprehensive System, Journal of Personality
 Assessment
, 101, 374-392. DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2018.1458315


Geoffrey W. Sutton, PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology. He retired from a clinical practice and was credentialed in clinical neuropsychology and psychopharmacology. His website is  www.suttong.com

 

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Tuesday, January 24, 2023

Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory

 

Assessment name:  Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory

Scale overview: The Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory is a 24-item assessment of forgiveness and reconciliation.

 

Author: Richard S. Balkin

 

Response Type: FRI items are presented along with a pair of words with five boxes in between the two words. Participants check the box to indicate how closely a word matches their feelings.

Scale items

In the Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory study by Balkin et al. (2014), the authors presented evidence for 24-items organized into four subscales of six items each. The four subscales are: Collaborative Exploration, Role of Reconciliation, Remorse/Change, Interpersonal/Intrapersonal. Scores for each subscale range from 6 to 30 and can be plotted on a profile as illustrated in the article.

Psychometric properties

The authors presented means and standard deviations as well as Cronbach alpha values ranging from 0.88 to 0.93 for the four subscales. Factor analysis supported the structure of the FRI. Validity data revealed a significant inverse relationship between each of the four subscales of the FRI and the two subscales of the Forgiveness Scale (AN, PP).

Availability:

Author contact:

Richard S. Balkin, Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi, Counseling and Educational Psychology Department, College of Education, ECDC 232, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5834, Corpus Christi, TX 78412-5834, USA. Email: richard.balkin@tamucc.edu

Permissions information for the article: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/journals-permissions

 

Reference 

Balkin, R. S., Harris, N. A., Freeman, S. J., & Huntington, S. (2014). The Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory: An Instrument to Process Through Issues of Forgiveness and Conflict. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development47(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748175613497037

 

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NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

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Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

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Monday, January 23, 2023

Desire to Reconcile Scale

 

Assessment name:  Desire to Reconcile Scale

Scale overview:

The Desire to Reconcile Scale is a 4-item rating scale developed by Woodyatt and Wenzel (2014) to assess the willingness of an offender to reconcile with the person they offended.

Authors: Lydia Woodyatt and Michael Wenzel

Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of agreement from 0 = Do not Agree at all, 3 = Neutral, and 6 = Strongly Agree.

Scale items

The scale includes four items.

 

Psychometric properties

The authors’ findings revealed adequate internal consistency (alpha = 0.82) and they provided support for validity in the form of correlations with self-forgiveness and self-trust. Griffin (2016) reported a positive correlation between Decisional Affirmation of Values scale and the Desire to Reconcile Scale.

Availability:

The four items are included in Woodyatt and Wenzel (2014).

Reference for the scale

Woodyatt, L., & Wenzel, M. (2014). A needs-based perspective on self-forgiveness: Addressing threat to moral identity as a means of encouraging interpersonal and intrapersonal restoration. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 50, 125-135.

 

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NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Differentiated Process Scale of Self-forgiveness

 


Assessment name:  Differentiated Process Scale of Self-forgiveness

Scale overview: The Differentiated Process Scale of Self-forgiveness (DPSSF; Woodyatt & Wenzel, 2013) assesses three dimensions of self-forgiveness: Genuine self-forgiveness(GSF), pseudo-self-forgiveness (PSF), self-punishment (SP).

 

Authors: Lydia Woodyatt and Michael Wenzel

 

Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of agreement from 0 = Do not Agree at all, 3 = Neutral, and 6 = Strongly Agree.

Scale items

There are a total of 20 items divided among the three subscales as follows: GSF 1-7, SP 8-14, PSF 15-20.

Psychometric properties

Woodyatt and Wenzel (2013) reported adequate Cronbach’s alpha levels and positive correlations with empathy and self-esteem. Griffin (2016) reported strong internal consistency (alpha) values (GSF, 0.91; PSF, 0.80; SP 0.82). Griffin (2016) also reported significant positive correlations between the GSF and his Decisional Affirmation of Values scale, but only SP was significantly related (inverse) to Griffin’s Emotional Restoration of Esteem factor.

 

Availability:

The DPSSF is available in Woodyatt & Wenzel (2013).

Reference for the scale

Woodyatt, L. & Wenzel, M. (2013). Self-forgiveness and restoration of an offender following an interpersonal transgression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32, 225-259.

 

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NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

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Two-factor Self-Forgiveness Scale (Griffin 2016)

 


Assessment name:  Two-factor Self-Forgiveness Scale

Scale overview: The Two-factor Self-Forgiveness Scale is a 10-item self-report measure of two factors of self-forgiveness: Decisional Affirmation of Values(DAV), Emotional Restoration of Esteem (ERE). The names of the two factors represent the dual-process model of self-forgiveness.

 Read more about the concept of Self-Forgiveness

Author:  Brandon Griffin

 Response Type: Items are rated on a 7-point scale of agreement from 1 = Strongly Disagree to 7 = Strongly Agree.

Scale items

Each of the two factors are assessed based on responses to five items. DAV items focus on thoughts about one’s wrongdoing and ERE items assess feelings about oneself related to the wrongdoing.

Psychometric properties

Griffin provides extensive findings in his dissertation (2016). The first two studies support the two-factor structure. Study two includes evidence supporting criterion-related validity. Data analyses support adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability.

Availability:

The full set of 10-items is available in the author’s dissertation.

 

Reference for the scale

Griffin, B. J. (2016). Development of a two-factor self-forgiveness scale.  [Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University]. https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd/4670/?utm_source=scholarscompass.vcu.edu%2Fetd%2F4670&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages

 

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 

 

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, January 19, 2023

Self-Control- Single Item Scale

 


Assessment name:  Single-Item Measure of Self-Control

Scale overview:  The single-item self-control scale uses an 11-point scale to quantify a person’s perception of their self-control.

 

Authors: Wanja Wolff and others

 

Response Type: Item was answered on an 11-point quantitative scale (1 = none at all, 11 = very much).

Scale item: How much self-control do you have?

 

Psychometric properties

The self-control item mean = 8.16 with SD = 2.13. There was a strong positive correlation with the Brief Self-Control Scale ( r = .715) and a moderate inverse relationship with Short Boredom Proneness Scale (-0.397).

Availability:

The self-control single item measure is included in the Wolff et al. (2022) article.

Reference for the scale

Wolff, W., Bieleke, M., Englert, C., Bertrams, A., Schüler, J., & Martarelli, C. S. (2022). A Single Item Measure of Self-Control – Validation and Location in a Nomological Network of Self-Control, Boredom, and If-Then Planning. Social Psychological Bulletin17, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.7453

 

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

Related measure and posts

Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS)

 Self-Control and Psychology

Psychology of Willpower

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS)

 


Assessment name:  Brief Self-Control Scale

Scale overview: The Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) is a 13-item self-report measure of self-control, which is also called self-discipline and willpower.

 

Authors: June P. Tangney, Roy F. Baumeister, Angie L. Boone

 

Response Type: Items are rated on a five-point scale of self-evaluation from 1 = not at all like me to 5 = very much like me.

Scale items

Example items include “I am good at resisting temptation” and “I have a hard time breaking bad habits” (reverse coded).

Psychometric properties

In their original publication, Tangney and others (2004) documented high internal consistency and retest values. High scores representing self-control were associated with academic success and better relationships whereas low scores were correlated with personal problems and problem relationships.

Availability:

The BSCS is widely used and available in many languages. The original 36-item scale and the Brief Self-Control Scale are included in Tangney et al. (2004).

 

Reference for the scale

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271–322. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 Related Posts

Self-Control- Single Item Scale

Self-Control and Psychology

Psychology of Willpower


 

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Projective Testing

  In psychological assessment using projective tests, clinicians provide patients with ambiguous words, sentences, or images and look for th...