Saturday, October 30, 2021

Average Intelligence

 


The concept of average intelligence is sometimes difficult to appreciate because the two words, average and intelligence, are sometimes not defined.

Average 

To psychologists and counselors who administer tests of intelligence, a person who scores at the 50th Percentile has average intelligence as defined by the number of correct answers to test tasks compared to others in their age group.

Many tests set the middle score at 100 thus, 100 = average intelligence on many tests.

All test scores vary from time to time so, a person may earn more or less points on another day. This fluctuation is estimated and can range for example by plus or minus 3-5 IQ points depending on the test and age group.

 If you retake the test in a month or so, you may score better because of the “practice effect”—you’ve seen the items recently so you will probably do better.

There is an average range so examiners will not focus on the obtained score but consider a broader range. For example, some may consider 90 to 110 as average. Some use a statistic called the standard deviation, which is often 15 points on an IQ test. If a clinician uses a Standard Deviation of 15 points then the average range of intelligence scores = 85 to 115 (that is plus or minus 15 points from 100). Statistically, about 68% of people earn scores in this broad average range thus, most people in a given age group and the same population, will have an IQ score or scores in this broad average range.

By this definition, people who are above average intelligence earn scores above 115 on tests. In the US, schools often considered scores at 130 or higher as gifted but other tests and reports are considered. Also, people who scored below 85 were considered below average intelligence. Depending on their other abilities, they may need assistance with school work or work tasks. People with high and low scores are different so broad statements can be misleading.

Intelligence 

There are different theories of intelligence and tests have been constructed based on a few of the theories. Clinicians should be able to tell you basic facts about the test you or your child/loved one took. For the most part, the best tests ask examinees to answer a variety of questions and solve different types of problems. Thus, the best tests sample a variety of problem-solving tasks and average the scores for the different types of tasks.

For example, the ability to define words is one common measure of verbal intelligence. Through many years, examiners have found what people know in different age groups.

An example of performance intelligence is solving puzzles using blocks with different designs, which can be arranged to match pictures on a card. This ability increases considerably from preschool to adulthood.

There are other types of intelligence like emotional intelligence and social intelligence. Clinicians have developed tests to measure these skills too.

In a sense, intelligence is what is measured by intelligence tests—that’s circular—but it does give people a sense of what people know how to do compared to their age peers.

In addition, when abilities decline due to disease or head injury, knowing what is average for a person of a given age can be helpful in understanding the loss and marking recovery or further decline.

As a matter of context, clinicians usually administer other tests and conduct an interview to avoid interpreting test scores out of context.

Average intelligence is therefore, a middle range of abilities compared to other people of the same age who have taken the same test.

Ad

Learn more about test and other statistics in

Applied Statistics for Counselors


See related books and resources at www.Suttong.com





Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ) by Kathryn Hope Keller

 


Scale name: Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)

Scale overview: The SAQ is a 17-item self-report questionnaire.

Author: Kathryn Hope Keller

 

Response Type: 4-point Likert type. The choices are: Strongly disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly agree.

Subscales and Sample Items: There are two subscales.

1. Power-based Affective Wounding: “At times, I was

scolded by my leader and made to feel ashamed and helpless” and “I now feel cynical

about church/religious groups.”

 

2. Conditionality: “I believed I could be totally surrendered to God if I did everything

perfectly according to the church/group’s instructions,” and “I believed God would

punish me if I didn’t do what my church/group encouraged me to do.”

Reliability: Alpha for the 17-item scale was .95 (Keller, 2016). The study sample was 271 and the mean was 50.62 (SD = 14.87, SEM = .90) and Min-Max were 21-80.

Validity: Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution.

For the RSS, r=.76, p<.01. For the subscales, results are as follows: Divine Struggles, r=.68, p<.01; Demonic Struggles, r=.31, p<.01; Interpersonal Struggles, r=.81, p<.01; Moral Struggles, r=.52, p<.01; Doubt Struggle, r=.66, p<.01; and Ultimate Meaning Struggles, r=.54, p<.01. These findings suggest that participants with higher levels of spiritual abuse also experience higher levels of religious and spiritual struggles. (Keller, 2016, page 138)

 

Note. The RSS is the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale

 Availability: See pages 226-227 in the dissertation reference below.

Related Posts

Spiritual and Religious Abuse

Spiritual and Religious Harassment


Permissions -- if identified

Author contact in 2021 https://www.kellerpsychology.com/drkeller.html 

 Reference

Keller, K.R. (2016). Development of a spiritual abuse questionnaire. Dissertation available from https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/8760

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Monday, September 13, 2021

Writing About Data in Psychology Papers and Reports

 

Have you seen the data?

The word data is a plural noun and takes a plural verb. See the following two examples.

Our data do not indicate why a discrepancy might exist, but the findings could be consistent with those of Kakhnovets (2011) who found that Extraversion was a factor for women but not
men in seeking psychotherapy (Sutton et al., 2018, p.20).

There are data suggesting that certain infants appear to actively suppress activation of the attachment system (i.e., have trouble seeking care). Cassidy, 2000, p. 116)

We write:

Data are not data is.

Data were not data was.

Data reveal not data reveals.

Data show not data shows.

If we wanted to write about one item from a data set, we could use the singular form, datum.

One score in a set of scores is a datum. Datum is rarely used.

Learn More about analyzing and writing about research in Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

References


Cassidy, J. (2000). Adult romantic attachments: A developmental perspective on individual differences. Review of General Psychology, 4, 111-131.

Sutton, G. W., Kelly, H., Worthington, E. L. Jr., Griffin, B. J., & Dinwiddie, C. (2018) Satisfaction with Christian psychotherapy and well-being: Contributions of hope, personality, and spirituality. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 5 (1), 8-24. doi: 10.1037/scp0000145

Please check out my website   www.suttong.com

   and see my books on   AMAZON       or  GOOGLE STORE

Also, consider connecting with me on    FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton    

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton    

You can read many published articles at no charge:

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton     ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 


Average Intelligence

  The concept of average intelligence is sometimes difficult to appreciate because the two words, average and intelligence, are sometimes no...