Sunday, January 12, 2020

Religious Coping: The Brief RCOPE scale


The Brief RCOPE scale is a 14-item measure of religious coping developed and studied by Kenneth Pargament (e.g., 1997) and his colleagues. The scale is based on coping theory applied to religion and aims to help researchers understand one relationship between people and their religion when they experience a stressful life experience.

Research supports two dimensions of coping reflected in the scale: positive and negative. These two dimensions are reflected in two subscales of the Brief RCOPE labeled accordingly as Positive Religious Coping Subscale (PRC) and Negative Religious Subscale (NRC).

Positive coping means drawing upon spiritual resources in a way that helps people cope with stressful events. Such people may have a secure relationship with God or a higher power, hold a benevolent worldview, and have positive relationships with religious others.

Negative religious coping indicates intrapersonal religious or spiritual struggles. The conflict may be experienced as personal tension, conflicts with God, or religious others.

Five Dimensions of Religious Coping

The coping scales address five dimensions of religious coping, which Pargament et al. (2011, p. 56) phrase in goal language using the phrase “Religious methods of coping to…” followed by a specific dimension as follows:

            find meaning
            gain control
            gain comfort and closeness to God
            gain intimacy with others and closeness to God
            achieve a life transformation

The Brief version of the RCOPE has 14-items and is the most commonly used measure of religious coping.

Researchers have used the Brief RCOPE with people from different ethnic groups and religious groups. Most studies in 1 2011 review were based on US samples (Pargament, Feuille, & Brudzy).

Psychometric findings

Reliability: The median alpha values for the scores from the two subscales based on thousands of participants (Pargament et al., 2011) were: PRC = .92 and NRC = .81.

The relationship between the two scales is orthogonal based on most factor analyses but there are some low association values in some studies.

Validity: Several studies support the conclusion that the RCOPE usually produces adequate validity values in relationship to measures of spirituality such as wellbeing and post-traumatic growth.

RCOPE Items

The items for the RCOPE and the Brief RCOPE can be found in a downloadable pdf available 12 January 2020 ( I cannot guarantee the link will always be operative.)



See Also

Concept Links for Additional Reading


Concepts in Blog
Book Chapter

Median, Averages
8 On Average
15 Survey Results
Reliability
20 Test Score Reliability
17 Survey Reliability
Validity
21 Test Score Validity
18 Survey Validity
Religious/ Spiritual measures

Chapter 13
Factor Analysis
23 Reading Complex Statistics
18 Survey Validity



Religious Coping References

Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Pargament, K., Feuille, M., & Burdzy, D. (2011). The brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions, 2 (1), 51-76. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel2010051

See the reference section in the above references for extensive references to the RCOPE in research.


Connections

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   My Books   AMAZON     GOOGLE PLAY STORE
   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton
   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

Publications (many free downloads)
  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)     
  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)


 














Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Response set and bias in surveys

Response set is a tendency to respond similarly to all or many questions such as frequently chosing "somewhat agree" on scale options ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree."

Response bias occurs when respondents deliberately give false responses.

There are many forms of response bias.

Acquiescence bias occurs when respondents select only positive answers. This is also called "yea-saying."

Demand characteristics influence answers to survey items when the respondent attempts to provide answers according to the way they think an ideal participant should respond.

Extreme bias occurs when respondents frequently choose the extreme options on survey items such as the "Strongly Agree" and "Strongly Disagree" options.

Hostility bias occurs when respondents feel provoked by items in the survey. Researchers must take care in wording items that may be sensitive. Explanations and instructions might help.

Nay-saying is the opposite of Acquiescence bias. Respondents select only, or mostly, negative responses.

Nonresponse bias refers to suspected differences between the people who respond to take a survey and those who do not.


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Prestige bias is like social desirability bias focused on a specific aspect of a tendency to want to appear as having a higher social status in terms of a culture's values such as education, wealth, or social power.

Primacy bias or primacy effects occur when respondents choose the first available response to each item.

Recall bias occurs whenever respondents rely on their memory to respond to survey items. Human memory is not infallible and subject to many biases.

Recency bias, or recency effect, is the tendency of respondents to choose a response based on their previous--most recent--response. Participants may disengage after a long survey.

Response order bias occurs when respondents do not carefully weigh all the options but chose one that comes easily to mind. Context can make a difference. Contrast effects can be seen when the order of questions reveals large differences in the responses obtained. Assimilation effects occur when the order of survey items leads to more similar responses.



Self-selection bias occurs when people participate who were not chosen to be a part of the sample.

Social response bias, also called social desirability bias, refers to a tendency of respondents to over-report socially desirable or "good" responses.

Sponsorship bias occurs when respondents are aware of who is sponsoring the survey and their perception of that organization influences their responses.

Stereotype bias occurs when items evoke a personal response, which activates a respondent's stereotypes. Stereotypes are widely held  simplistic and relatively fixed beliefs about groups of people such as "all men or all women" and "all Blacks or all Whites." Stereotypes can also exist about companies, things, and ideas.

Straight lining occurs when respondents choose the same answer. Sometimes this can be avoided by using reverse scaling of items or identified by including items that people would rarely endorse.

Related Issues

Satisficing is a term referring to the degree to which a respondent processes the survey item. Some may quickly respond and others may think carefully about the item.

Commonly misreported topics in surveys include abilities and skills, personality characteristics, sexual behavior, religion and spirituality, income, and unlawful behavior.

Response bias is difficult to eliminate.

Connections

   My Page    www.suttong.com
   My Books   AMAZON     GOOGLE PLAY STORE
   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton
   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

Publications (many free downloads)
  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)     

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)

If you are a counselor, you may find this book helpful. It is also available on AMAZON.




Monday, November 4, 2019

Dispositional Greed Scale Measuring Greed



The Dispositional Greed Scale is a 7-item rating scale. Participants rate each item on a scale of 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree.








Permission:
The test items may be reproduced and used for noncommercial research and educational purposes. The list of items is available from PsycTESTS.

Sample

1. I always want more.
2. Actually, I’m kind of greedy.

Read more about greed in the Psychology of Greed.

Note:
In psychology, a disposition is a relatively durable behavior pattern or trait in contrast to a state, which can vary with situations.

References

For the test items in PsycTESTS, see:

Seuntjens, T. G., Zeelenberg, M., van de Ven, N., & Breugelmans, S. M. (2015). Dispositional Greed Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t41245-000

For the article about dispositional greed, see the following reference:

Seuntjens, Terri G., Zeelenberg, Marcel, van de Ven, Niels, & Breugelmans, Seger M. (2015). Dispositional greed. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(6), 917-933. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000031

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Impulsiveness - Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS)




An 8-item version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is available. The 30-item BIS is a commonly used measure of impulsiveness. The original scale has undergone a number of revisions. In 2013, Lynne Steinberg and her team evaluated an 11-item version.  Based on the evidence, an 8-item version was developed. The 8-item version is knows as BIS-Brief

Each item is rated on a 4-point scale as follows.

1 = rarely/never
2 = occasionally
3 = often
4 = almost always/always

Items

The items ask the participants about thinking, planning, and self-control.

The items  may be used for education and research. purposes. The PsycTESTS entry included the following permissions statement.
Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.
The 8-item list is in PsycTESTS:

Steinberg, L., Sharp, C., Stanford, M. S., & Tharp, A. T. (2013). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale–Brief [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t21455-000

Items are also included in Steinberg et al. (2013).

Reliability

Reliability findings reported by Steinberg et al. (2013) using IRT analysis was approximately .80 and Cronbach's alpha was .78.

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Validity

Steinberg et al. (2013) reported evidence of construct validity based on three samples of participants in three age groups. They found similar correlations between the 8-item version and the full 30-item version. The article also includes correlations with other measures in clinical samples.

A more recent study supported the utility of the BIS-Brief in an adolescent sample. The authors noted two-dimensions of the scale (Charles, Floyd, & Barry, 2019). Link to Sage online publication.

References

Barratt, E. S. (1959). Anxiety and impulsiveness related to psychomotor efficiency. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 9, 191–198. doi:10.2466/pms.1959.9.3.191


Barratt, E. S. (1985). Impulsiveness subtraits: Arousal and information processing. In J. T. Spence & C. E. Izard (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and personality (pp. 137–146). North Holland, the Netherlands: Elsevier.


Steinberg, L., Sharp, C., Stanford, M. S., & Tharp, A. T. (2013). New tricks for an old measure: The development of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale–Brief (BIS-Brief). Psychological Assessment, 25, 216-226. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030550

Steinberg, L., Sharp, C., Stanford, M. S., & Tharp, A. T. (2013). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale–Brief [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t21455-000

If you are working on a survey  project, you may also find Creating Surveys helpful. Available on AMAZON.


Connections

My Page    www.suttong.com

My Books  
 AMAZON     GOOGLE PLAY STORE

FACEBOOK  
 Geoff W. Sutton

TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton


Publications (many free downloads)
     
  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)
     
  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)


Saturday, September 14, 2019

Sacred Marriage Scales

Two scales examine couples' perspectives on the role of God in their marriages. The scales are the work of Mahoney, Pargament, and DeMaris (2009). Examples and a reference are included below.

The first scale looks at the role of God in their marriage. There are 10-items. Couples are advised that they substitute another word for God as may be applicable to their faith.

Revised Manifestation of God in Marriage

     Following are the instructions

Directions: Some of the following questions use the word "God." Different people use different terms for God, such as "Higher Power," "Divine Spirit," "Spiritual Force," "Holy Spirit," "Yahweh," "Allah,", "Buddha”, or “Goddess.” Please feel free to substitute your own word for God when answering any of the questions that follow. Also, some people do not believe in God. If this is the case for you, please feel free to choose the "strongly disagree" response when needed.
  Two sample items:
   
     1) God played a role in how I ended up being married to my spouse.


     2) I sense God’s presence in my relationship with my spouse.

Revised Sacred Qualities of Marriage

  Two sample items:

     1) My marriage is holy.


     2) Being with my spouse feels like a deeply spiritual experience.

Scoring
There are 10-items in the scales. Participants are asked to respond on a 1 to 7 scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree, 4 = neutral, and 7 = Strongly Disagree.

Availability

Here's the internet address for the scales:

https://www.bgsu.edu/content/dam/BGSU/college-of-arts-and-sciences/psychology/psy-spirit-fam-mahoney/Original_Revised_Sanctification_Scales.pdf

Reference

Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., & DeMaris, A. (2009). Couples viewing marriage and pregnancy
through the lens of the Sacred: A descriptive study. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 20, 1-45.

Learn more about Creating Surveys in the book, Creating Surveys on AMAZON.







Holy Sex Sanctification of Sexuality in Relationships


Two 10-item scales assess the degree to which couples view sexuality from a spiritual perspective.
The scales published by Hernandez, Mahoney, and Pargament (2011) are rated on the same 7-point scale.

The wording is clearly aimed at married couples. Although they use the word God, note that in a similar scale focused on children from some of the same authors, participants are instructed to think of their own deity.



Revised Manifestation of God in Marital Sexuality

Two sample items:

     1) God played a role in my decision to have a sexual relationship with my spouse. 

     2) Our sexual relationship speaks to the presence of God.

Revised Sacred Qualities of Marital Sexuality

Two sample items:

     1) Being sexually intimate with my spouse feels like a deeply spiritual experience.

     2) Our sexual relationship seems like a miracle to me.


Scoring

There are 10-items in the scale. Participants are asked to respond on a 1 to 7 scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree, 4 = neutral, and 7 = Strongly Disagree.

Availability

Link to the scales online

https://www.bgsu.edu/content/dam/BGSU/college-of-arts-and-sciences/psychology/psy-spirit-fam-mahoney/Original_Revised_Sanctification_Scales.pdf


Reference

Hernandez, K. M., Mahoney, A., & Pargament, K. I. (2011). Sanctification of sexuality: Implications
for newlyweds' marital and sexual quality. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 775-780.


Learn more about Creating Surveys in the book, Creating Surveys on AMAZON.







Sanctification of Parenting Scale Revised

Mahoney, Pargament and deMaris (2009) published a revised scale that examines beliefs of  a mother toward her child.

The authors advise researchers that they may change the word "baby" to other child age labels depending on the age of the children in their study. Thus, researchers may use labels of "toddler," "child," or "teen" in place of "baby."

Spirituality

Although the authors use the word God, the instructions invite participants to use their own word for the deity. Following is a copy of the instructions. Notice the different term for the scale's name.


Revised Manifestation of God in Parenting:

Directions: Some of the following questions use the word "God." Different people use different terms for God, such as "Higher Power," "Divine Spirit," "Spiritual Force," "Holy Spirit," "Yahweh," "Allah,", "Buddha”, or “Goddess.” Please feel free to substitute your own word for God when answering any of the questions that follow. Also, some people do not believe in God. If this is the case for you, please feel free to choose the "strongly disagree" response when needed.
   Sample items
1) God played a role in my baby coming into my life.
 2) I sense God's presence in my relationship with my baby.
   Scoring

There are 10-items in the scale. Participants are asked to respond on a 1 to 7 scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree, 4 = neutral, and 7 = Strongly Disagree.


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Revised Sacred Qualities of Parenting

The authors include a second set of 10-items, rated on the same 7-point scale to assess the sacred qualities of parenting. Following are two examples of this scale.

     1) My baby seems like a miracle to me.

     2) Being a mother feels like a deeply spiritual experience.


Availability

You can find the full scale at this link:    https://www.bgsu.edu/content/dam/BGSU/college-of-arts-and-sciences/psychology/psy-spirit-fam-mahoney/Original_Revised_Sanctification_Scales.pdf

Reference

The full reference to the Mahoney et al. (2009) scale is below.

Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., & DeMaris, A. (2009). Couples viewing marriage and pregnancy
through the lens of the Sacred: A descriptive study. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 20, 1-45.

Learn more about Creating Surveys in the book, Creating Surveys on AMAZON.






Religious Coping: The Brief RCOPE scale

The Brief RCOPE scale is a 14-item measure of religious coping developed and studied by Kenneth Pargament (e.g., 1997) and his colleagues...