Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Statistics of Mass Shooting in the USA

 FBI Reports Data

Active Shooters 2019 FBI Report


Several aspects of the FBI reports can help students, faculty, and leaders in presenting important data to the public.

1. On page 3 they define what they mean by an "active shooter." And they clarify that the report does not include all gun-related shootings.

2. Page 4 uses a two-color strategy to compare two years (2019, 2018) side by side. The selection of numbers to compare seems reasonable to understand what is going on.


3. Page 5 tells us where the shootings take place using a color-coded map. It offers a clear look though the selection of green may not be the best color when the gray areas are the "safe zones" where no shootings took place. See photo at the top of this page.

4. The graphics on page 7 offer a helpful illustration of ways to present information to the general public. We see data, graphic comparisons, and clear colors that help differences stand out.



Reference link to FBI 2019 Report

Permission to share- see text

Understanding problems of crime involves accurate statistics presented in a way that voters and law makers can understand the facts when deciding what to do about public safety.

I write about research methods and statistics and present this information to help others present data that can help decision-makers.

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on   AMAZON or   GOOGLE


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Please check out my website   www.suttong.com

   and see my books on   AMAZON       or  GOOGLE STORE

Also, consider connecting with me on    FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton    

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You can read many published articles at no charge:

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Tuesday, May 25, 2021

Forgiveness- Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations


Scale name: Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations (TRIM)

Scale overview

A 12-item self-report assessment of interpersonal motivations related to forgiveness. This version has two subscales. The Avoidance subscale has 7 items and the Revenge subscale has 5 items.

There is a related 7-item benevolence subscale measuring benevolent motivations to forgive.

Authors: McCullough et al., 1998

Response Type

All items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type rating.

Subscales

Avoidance, Revenge, plus Benevolence

Sample items

Avoidance: “I live as if he/she doesn’t exist, isn’t around,”

Revenge: “I’ll make him/her pay,”

Benevolence: “Even though his/her actions hurt me, I still have goodwill for him/her”

Reliability

See McCullough et al. (1998) for details on the psychometric properties of the TRIM-12.

Validity

See McCullough et al. (1998) for details on the psychometric properties of the TRIM-12.

Availability

See the article in the APA PsycArticles Database or the Journal (reference below).

Test Reference

McCullough, M.E. , Rachal, K.C. , Sandage, S.J. , Worthington, E.L. , Jr., Brown, S.W ., & Hight, T.L.(1998).Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships.II: Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586-1603.

See the list of books on Forgiveness

 Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 



Reference for clinicians on understanding  and writing about assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 





 

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

  

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 


Leadership Restoration Scales

Measures of  Forgiveness and Restoration



Scale names: Leadership Restoration Scales

           Leadership Restoration Scale: Forgive and Restore (LRSF)

           Leadership Restoration Scale: Restoration (LRSR)

 Scales overview

Two short scales measure two dimensions of congregants views on restoring a religious leader to ministry. One scale includes forgiveness (LRSF) and a second scale focuses exclusively on degrees of restoration without mentioning forgiveness (LRSR).

Author(s)

Sutton and Jordan (2013).

Items

The LRSF is a 3-item scale of forgiveness and restoration

The LRSR is a 6-item scale of restoration

Response Type

A 7-point rating scale with anchors 1 = Very Strongly Agree and 7 = Very Strongly Disagree. See example below.

Sample items

The full scales can be found in Sutton and Jordan (2013) or can be downloaded here- see availability below.

LRSF Scale

2. The victim or victims offended by the person need to forgive the person before the person can be restored to any public ministry position.

Very Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Mostly Agree

Somewhat Agree

Somewhat Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Very Strongly Disagree

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

 

LRSR Scale

3. It is unlikely that this person could return to the same or similar public ministry position.

Very Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Mostly Agree

Somewhat Agree

Somewhat Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Very Strongly Disagree

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

 

Descriptive Statistics

These data are based on a sample of 169 people who reported knowing a member of the clergy who committed an offense (Sutton & Jordan, 2013). Skew and kurtosis were within normal limits for both measures.

LRSF M = 9.85, SD = 4.79

LRSR M = 17.96, SD = 6.61

Validity

The two LRS scales measure different responses to restoring a leader. Although they are not significantly related to each other (p = .40) they are differently related to other measures of forgiveness and spirituality. A statistically significant relationship was defined as p < .05.

LRSF was significantly positively correlated with TRIM-A (Transgression Related Interpersonal Motivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

LRSF was significantly negatively correlated with the following scales

CSRI 1 (Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory)

IER-EP (Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity Scale Revised-Extrinsic Personal Subscale; Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989)

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore) was significantly positively correlated with the following scales

TRIM-A (Transgression Related InterpersonalMotivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

CRSI Level I offenses: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory

CRSI Level 2 offenses: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore) was significantly negatively correlated with the SCBCS (Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale, Hwang et al., 2008)

Availability

See Appendix B of Sutton and Jordan (2013) or

Click Here to Download Scales

 Permissions -- if identified

The scales may be used in research and teaching at no charge. Please cite Sutton & Jordan (2013). 

The scales may be modified to fit specific situations but kindly cite the Sutton & Jordan (2013) reference.

For use in books or any commercial use, contact Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD at suttong@evangel.edu

 Link to the related CSRI scales

 References

Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. R., O'Connor, L. E., Parrott, L., & Wade, N. G. (2005). Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. Journal of Personality, 73, 183–225. doi:10.1111/j.14676494.2004.00308.x.

Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-Revised and single item scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 348–354. doi:10.2307/1386745.

Hwang, J., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: an abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr's compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421–428. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0117-2.

McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E., Brown, S., & Hight, T. L. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586–1603. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1586.

Sutton, G. W. (2016). A House Divided: Sexuality, morality, and Christian cultures. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. ISBN: 9781498224888 AMAZON

Sutton, G. W. & Jordan, K. (2013). Evaluating attitudes toward clergy restoration: The psychometric properties of two scales. Pastoral Psychology. doi 10.1007/s11089-013-0527-7 Published online 16 March 2013.  [Citation for these scales.]

Sutton, G. W., McLeland, K. C., Weaks, K. Cogswell, P. E., & Miphouvieng, R. N. (2007). Does gender matter? An exploration of gender, spirituality, forgiveness and restoration following pastor transgressions. Pastoral Psychology. 55, 645-663. doi 10.1007/ s11089-007-0072-3  ResearchGate Link        Academia Link

Sutton, G.W., & Thomas, E. K. (2005). Can derailed pastors be restored? Effects of offense and age on restoration. Pastoral Psychology, 53, 583-599.              Academia Link    Research Gate Link

Thomas, E. K., White, K., & Sutton, G.W. (2008). Religious leadership failure: Apology, responsibility-taking, gender, forgiveness, and restoration. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27, 16-29.      Academia Link    Research Gate Link

 Resource for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 




Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

  


 









Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 Photo note: Bing images- Free to share and use


Statistics of Mass Shooting in the USA

 FBI Reports Data Active Shooters 2019 FBI Report Several aspects of the FBI reports can help students, faculty, and leaders in presenting i...