Showing posts with label stress. Show all posts
Showing posts with label stress. Show all posts

Thursday, October 27, 2022

Depression Anxiety Stress Scales -21 (DASS-21)

 


Scale name: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

Scale overview: The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) is a 21-item screening instrument for the three psychological conditions of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Note: There is a 42-item version of the DASS. This post focuses on the 21-item version.

Authors: Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995)

Response Type: Items are rated on a 4-point scale of frequency.

0 = Did not apply to me at all.

1= Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time.

2= Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time.

3 = Applied to me very much, or most of the time.

Scale items

Each of the three scales (Depression, Anxiety, Stress) has 7-items worded in the first person e.g., “I felt…” or “I experienced…” and so forth.

 

Reliability:

Internal consistency values based on Cronbach Alpha calculations were strong for the DASS-21 (Antony et al., 1988).

Depression = .94

Anxiety = .87

Stress = .91

Validity: Factor analysis supported the structure of three scales. Factor loadings are reported in the Antony et al. (1988) publication.

Antony et al., (1988) reported concurrent validity data comparing the three DASS-21 scales to the Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) and STAI-T measures.

DASS-21 Scales- Correlations with other measures

Depression and BDI = .79

Anxiety and BAI = .85

Stress and STAI-T = .68

Note: All of the scales in the study were correlated with values ranging from .46 to .85.

*****

Stanford et al. (2021) included the DASS-21 in a psychology of religion study. Religious coping was assessed using the Brief RCOPE. Negative coping was linked to stress (39), anxiety (.40), and depression (.41). There was a weak, albeit statistically significant relationship between positive religious coping and anxiety (.16) but not for either stress or depression.

*****

DASS-21 and the SCOPES Model

The three subscales of the DASS-21 screen for mental health conditions associated with the E (Emotion/Mood) dimension of the multidimensional SCOPES model.

Availability:

The full set of 21 items is available from the PsycTESTS database.

The items can also be found in Table 2 of the Antony et al. 1998 article.

 

Permissions: According to PsycTESTS:

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.

 

References for the scale

Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176-181. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.10.2.176

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t01004-000

 

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

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Saturday, October 1, 2022

Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers (WSPT)

 


Scale name: Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers (WSPT)

Scale overview: The Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers (WSPT) is a 36-item self-report inventory designed to assess the level of teachers elementary and secondary schools in nine areas.

 

Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of agreement from 1 = never to 5 = very often.

Subscales: The nine subscales are as listed below.

1. Student Behavior (SB)

2. Employee/ Administrator Relationships (EAR)

3. Teacher/ Teacher Relations (TTR)

4. Parent/Teacher Relationships (PTR)

5. Time Management (TM)

6. Intrapersonal Conflicts (IC)

7. Physical Symptoms of Stress (PS)

8. Psychological/ Emotional Symptoms of Stress (PES)

9. Stress Management Techniques (SM)

Scale items

There are 4 items in each subscale for a total of 36 items. Based on the 5-point scoring system, possible total scale scores range from 36 to 180.

Sample items are listed for each subscale below.

1. Student Behavior (SB).  “I have difficulty controlling my class”

2. Employee/ Administrator Relationships (EAR). “I have difficulty in my working relationship with my administrator(s)”

3. Teacher/ Teacher Relations (TTR).  “I feel my fellow teachers think I am not doing a good job”

4. Parent/Teacher Relationships (PTR).  “Parents of my students are a source of concern for me”

5. Time Management (TM).  “I have too much to do and not enough time to do it”

6. Intrapersonal Conflicts (IC).  “Teaching is stressful for me”

7. Physical Symptoms of Stress (PS).  “I feel depressed about my job”

8. Psychological/ Emotional Symptoms of Stress (PES)

9. Stress Management Techniques (SM).  “I feel powerless to solve my

difficulties”

 

Reliability:

Internal consistency values for the total scale score were .91 for a low stress group and .93 for a high stress group (Luh et al., 1991).

Rosenberg (2010) reported .83 for the total score.

Internal consistency values (Cronbach Alpha) for subscales range from .58 to .89 (Luh et al., 1991).

Rosenberg (2010) reported a range of values (Cronbach Alpha) from .55 to .84 for the subscales.

Validity:

See Luh et al., (1991) for discriminant validity findings.

Sutton and Huberty (1984) reported a significant inverse relationship between total WSPT scores and ratings of job satisfaction (r = .474).

 

Availability:

A full list of the 36 items can be found in Rosenberg (2010) and Kendell (1982). See references below.

  

Reference for using scales in research:

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 Related Measure

 Teacher Stress Inventory

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

  

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 References for the scale

Kendell, S. E. (1982) An investigation into stress factors and levels of stress as perceived by regular classroom teachers of Newfoundland and Labrador. Masters thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Luh, W., Olejnik, S., Greenwood, G., & Parkay, F. (1991). Psychometric properties of the Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 255-270.

Rosenberg, T. C. (2010). Teacher stress: An assessment of teachers' need for and receptiveness towards a stress reduction program within one rural school system.  Educational Specialist. 98. https://commons.lib.jmu.edu/edspec201019/98

Sutton, G.W., & Huberty, T.J. (1984). An evaluation of teacher stress and job satisfaction. Education, 105, 189‑192. Academia Link  Research Gate Link

Links to Connections

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Thursday, September 8, 2022

College Student Stress Scale CSSS

 


Scale name: College Student Stress Scale

Scale overview: The College Student Stress Scale is an 11-item self-report assessment of college students’ response to items about distress, feeling anxious, or questioning their ability.

 

Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of frequency of occurrence from 1 = Never  to 5 = Very Often.

Scale instructions and items

For the following items, report how often each has occurred this semester using the following scale

Never

Rarely

Sometimes

Often

Very Often

1

2

3

4

5

 

Examples (See the reference for the wording of the 11 items.)

Item 1. asks about personal relationships

Item 2. asks about family

 

Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha = .87 in a sample of 185 college students (Feldt & Koch, 2011)

Validity: Findings from a follow-up study revealed strong convergent validity with the Perceived Stress Scale (r = .80).  The authors also reported “Zero-order coefficients of correlation indicated that the CSSS total score is significantly correlated with neuroticism (large effect size) and also test anxiety and self-efficacy for learning and performance (both medium effect size)” (Feldt & Koch, 2011)

 

Availability:

The full text of the scale is available on PsycTESTS

Permissions:

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.

 

References for the scale

Feldt, R. C. (2008). College Student Stress Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t07526-000

Feldt, R. C., & Koch, C. (2011). Reliability and Construct Validity of the College Student Stress Scale. Psychological Reports108(2), 660–666. https://doi.org/10.2466/02.08.13.16.PR0.108.2.660-666

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 

 

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Monday, June 20, 2022

Parent-Child Relationship Scale CPRS Review

 


Scale name: Parent-Child Relationship Scale CPRS

Scale overview: The Parent-Child Relationship Scale (CPRS) is a 15-item parent self-report rating of relational conflict and closeness.

Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of applicability from 1 to 5. Instructions and number terms are as follows.

Each items uses the same five point scale.

Please assign the following values to each response:

1 = definitely does not apply

2 = not really

3 = neutral, not sure

4 = applies somewhat

5 = definitively applies

Subscales = 2

    Conflict 8-items: 2, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

    Closeness 7- items: 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 15

Sample Scale items

I share an affectionate, warm relationship with my child.

My child and I always seem to be struggling with each other.

Scale statistics

See Table 2 of the article below for means and standard deviations for mothers and fathers relationship ratings with boys and girls on each subscale at both time periods of age 54 months and first grade.

Reliability:

Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Separate values were reported for mothers and fathers at two times: 54 months and first grade.

Conflict subscale: Maternal: @54 m and first grade = .84. Paternal: @54m = .90, @ Grade 1 = .78

Closeness subscale: Maternal @54m = .69, @ Grade 1 = .64. Paternal @54m = .72, @ Grade 1 = .74

The relationship between the subscales was low, r = .16.

 

Validity:

See the article for details. The authors obtained ratings of observed interactions. Also, there are correlations between subscale scores and the Child Behavior Checklist and the Social Skills Rating System.

 

Availability:

Primary contact: Kate Driscoll PhD Katherine.driscoll@childrensharvard.edu

The scale https://www.frpn.org/asset/measures-father-child-relationship-quality

The article about the scale:  https://education.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/resourceLibrary/Mothers_and_Fathers_Perceptions_%28Driscoll_Pianta%29.pdf

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2022, June 20). The Parent-Child Relationship Scale (CPRS) review. Assessment, Statistics, and Research. Retrieved from

Reference article for the scale

Driscoll, K., & Pianta, R. C.  (2011). Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of conflict and closeness in parent-child relationships during early childhood.  Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology, 7, 1-24.

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

  

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Projective Testing

  In psychological assessment using projective tests, clinicians provide patients with ambiguous words, sentences, or images and look for th...