Showing posts with label Emotional intelligence. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Emotional intelligence. Show all posts

Saturday, October 30, 2021

Average Intelligence


The concept of average intelligence is sometimes difficult to appreciate because the two words, average and intelligence, are sometimes not defined.


To psychologists and counselors who administer tests of intelligence, a person who scores at the 50th Percentile has average intelligence as defined by the number of correct answers to test tasks compared to others in their age group.

Many tests set the middle score at 100 thus, 100 = average intelligence on many tests.

All test scores vary from time to time so, a person may earn more or less points on another day. This fluctuation is estimated and can range for example by plus or minus 3-5 IQ points depending on the test and age group.

 If you retake the test in a month or so, you may score better because of the “practice effect”—you’ve seen the items recently so you will probably do better.

There is an average range so examiners will not focus on the obtained score but consider a broader range. For example, some may consider 90 to 110 as average. Some use a statistic called the standard deviation, which is often 15 points on an IQ test. If a clinician uses a Standard Deviation of 15 points then the average range of intelligence scores = 85 to 115 (that is plus or minus 15 points from 100). Statistically, about 68% of people earn scores in this broad average range thus, most people in a given age group and the same population, will have an IQ score or scores in this broad average range.

By this definition, people who are above average intelligence earn scores above 115 on tests. In the US, schools often considered scores at 130 or higher as gifted but other tests and reports are considered. Also, people who scored below 85 were considered below average intelligence. Depending on their other abilities, they may need assistance with school work or work tasks. People with high and low scores are different so broad statements can be misleading.


There are different theories of intelligence and tests have been constructed based on a few of the theories. Clinicians should be able to tell you basic facts about the test you or your child/loved one took. For the most part, the best tests ask examinees to answer a variety of questions and solve different types of problems. Thus, the best tests sample a variety of problem-solving tasks and average the scores for the different types of tasks.

For example, the ability to define words is one common measure of verbal intelligence. Through many years, examiners have found what people know in different age groups.

An example of performance intelligence is solving puzzles using blocks with different designs, which can be arranged to match pictures on a card. This ability increases considerably from preschool to adulthood.

There are other types of intelligence like emotional intelligence and social intelligence. Clinicians have developed tests to measure these skills too.

In a sense, intelligence is what is measured by intelligence tests—that’s circular—but it does give people a sense of what people know how to do compared to their age peers.

In addition, when abilities decline due to disease or head injury, knowing what is average for a person of a given age can be helpful in understanding the loss and marking recovery or further decline.

As a matter of context, clinicians usually administer other tests and conduct an interview to avoid interpreting test scores out of context.

Average intelligence is therefore, a middle range of abilities compared to other people of the same age who have taken the same test.


Learn more about test and other statistics in

Applied Statistics for Counselors

See related books and resources at

Thursday, July 8, 2021

Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS)


Scale name: Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS)

Scales overview: The Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS) is a 28-item measure of emotional intelligence having four subscales.

Authors: Pekaar, Keri A., Bakker, Arnold B., van der Linden, Dimitri, & Born, Marise Ph.

Response Type: All items are rated on a 5-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree to 5 (totally agree).

Subscales = 4

  Following are the four subscales with a sample item.

Self-focused emotion appraisal(1. I always know how I feel.)

Other-focused emotion appraisal (8. I am aware of the emotions of the people around me.)

Self-focused emotion regulation (15. I am in control of my own emotions.)

Other-focused emotion regulation (22. I can make someone else feel differently.)


Reliability and Validity

“The results indicate that the REIS follows a four-factorial structure and can be reliably measured with 28 items. The REIS was strongly correlated with other self-reported EI instruments and weakly to moderately correlated with an ability EI test, cognitive intelligence, and personality.” (Pekar  et al., Abstract).


The full list of 28-items is available on page 2 of the PsycTESTS document.

Permissions -- if identified

According to PsycTESTS:

 Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.



PsycTESTS Reference

Pekaar, K. A., Bakker, A. B., van der Linden, D., & Born, M. P.. (2018). Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale [Database record]. PsycTESTS. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi:

Article Reference

Pekaar, Keri A., Bakker, Arnold B., van der Linden, Dimitri, & Born, Marise Ph. (2018). Self- and other-focused emotional intelligence: Development and validation of the Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS). Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 222-233. doi:, © 2018 by Elsevier.

Learn more about Emotional Intelligence

A resource for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE


  Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 Resource Link for more tests and questionnaires:  A – Z Test Index

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