Showing posts with label attachment to God. Show all posts
Showing posts with label attachment to God. Show all posts

Wednesday, December 9, 2020

How to Measure Closeness in Relationships- Line Scale of Closeness


Line Scale of Closeness (LSC)

The Line Scale of Closeness (LSC) is a simple measure that can be used in clinical or research settings. In a clinical setting, psychotherapists and clients can explore any barriers to closeness and discuss how the level of closeness has changed over time. The LSC may also be used to identify progress toward counseling goals.

To compare changes over time or differences between groups, use a standardized line length such as 7-inches or 18-cm. 

On each end of the line, identify the client or participant and on the opposite end of the line, identify the person who is the subject of feeling close to or distant from. Ask the client or participant to place an X on the line to indicate how close they feel toward the other person.








Place a ruler on the scale and record the score in centimeters to two decimal points e.g., 12.25 cm.

I have used this scale informally and in lab research but I have not published any results.

I have not used the scale in an online format but I think it would be easy with survey software that allows for placing a response along a continuum.


I have worked in a variety of settings. The scale is easy to use with people of different languages or limited vocabulary.



For clients who express feeling distant from God, the Line Scale of Closeness (LSC) is an easy way for them to identify their perception of closeness. 

Although I have not used the word attachment, I hypothesize that the score on the LSC would be significantly correlated with avoidant and anxious attachment measured on Likert-scales.

I have used the scale to measure closeness to God in Christian samples. In experimental procedures, three groups receive similar instructions varied by the person of the Trinity. Most students felt closer to Jesus but the response to God the Father or the Holy Spirit were not consistent. These data suggest that attachment to God inventories may be less accurate than identifying Jesus as the focus of attachment for evangelical Christians. These are only hypotheses because the scale has not been used with a large sample and subject to peer review.


You have permission to use this scale for noncommercial use only (e.g., teaching and research). Kindly cite this post in your reports and presentations.

 Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

How to cite this post (APA Style)

Sutton, G.W. (2020, December 9). How to Measure Closeness in Relationships: Line Scale of Closeness (LSC)Assessment, Statistics, & Research 

Please consider adding my books as texts or handbooks in clinical and research settings. They are in use by professors teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in Psychology, Counselling, Education, and Seminary settings. 

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 Related Measures

Adult Attachment Scale

Attachment to God Inventory




Tuesday, November 3, 2020

Attachment to God Scale


The Attachment to God Scale (AGS), like other attachment measures, includes scales for anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachment (Rowatt, 2002). 

The 9-items are rated on a 7-point scale ranging from (1= strongly disagree; 7 = strongly agree).

 Rowatt and Kirkpatrick (2002) found support for two dimensions of attachment to God and reported Alpha values of .92 for avoidance and .80 for anxious attachment (Rowatt & Kirkpatrick, 2002).

If we think more positively, people who are low on anxious attachment to God would feel more secure. Likewise, people low on avoidant attachment to God would feel closer to God.


Sample items from the AGS


God seems to have little or no interest in my personal affairs.

I have a warm relationship with God.


Where to find the AGS


See the Rowatt (2002) reference below.


Related Posts

Attachment and Attachment Theory

Attachment to God

Attachment to God Inventory (AGI)



Resource Link for more tests:  A – Z Test Index



Rowatt, W. C. (2002). Attachment to God Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS.


Rowatt, W. C., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2002). Two dimensions of attachment to God and their relation to affect, religiosity, and personality constructs. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 637-651.             Link at Baylor University.

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Friday, August 17, 2018

Attachment to God Inventory

The Attachment to God Inventory (AGI) developed by Richard Beck and Angie McDonald (2004) consists of 28 items divided into two subscales (14 items each for Avoidant and Anxious Attachment).

The AGI is based on attachment theory as applied to the study of the relationship between Christians and God commonly portrayed as a parent-child relationship and referred to in the literature as attachment to God (e.g., Kirkpatrick, 2012). 

Avoidant attachment refers to a sense of distance from God. People close to God view God as protective. 

Anxious attachment reflects an insecure relationship with God in contrast to a secure relationship.

Participants rate each scale item from 1= disagree strongly to 7 = agree strongly. A sample item from the avoidant subscale is, “I prefer not to depend too much on God.” A sample item from the anxious subscale is, “I worry a lot about my relationship with God.”

Based on two college and one community samples, Beck and McDonald (2004) reported Cronbach alpha values for the subscales: Avoidant, α = .84 and α = .86 and Anxious α = .80 and α = .87.

The AGI in other research

Anxious attachment alpha = .80, 92 Avoidant attachment alpha = .88, 89, Sutton et al. (2018).

Anxious attachment alpha = .87 Avoidant attachment alpha = .86, Sutton, Jordan, & Worthington (2014).

Intercorrelations of AGI scales and other scales from Sutton et al. (2007).

AGI anx= Attachment to God Inventory- Anxious subscale
AGI avoid = Attachment to God Inventory- Avoidant subscale
DWTFS = Deshea Willingness to Forgive Scale
ASCSRFQ = Abbreviated Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire

Availability: The 28 items of the AGI

The full set of 28 items can be found on page 103 of the Beck and McDonald 2004 article referenced below.

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Beck, R., & McDonald, A. (2004). Attachment to God: The attachment to God inventory, tests of working model correspondence, and an exploration of faith group differences. Journal of Psychology and Theology32, 92–103. (See page 103 for the list of 28 items.)

Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2012). Attachment theory and the evolutionary psychology of religion. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion22(3), 231-241. doi:10.1080/10508619.2012.679556

Sutton, G. W., Jordan, K., & Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2014). Spirituality, hope, compassion, and forgiveness: Contributions of Pentecostal spirituality to godly love. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33, 212-226. Academia Link     ResearchGate 

Sutton, G. W., McLeland, K. C., Weaks, K. Cogswell, P. E., & Miphouvieng, R. N. (2007). Does gender matter? An exploration of gender, spirituality, forgiveness and restoration following pastor transgressions. Pastoral Psychology. 55, 645-663. doi 10.1007/ s11089-007-0072-3 Online Link n11144j1655536l2/ Academia link Research Gate Link


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Interfaith Spirituality Scale

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