Showing posts with label Spirituality. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Spirituality. Show all posts

Friday, October 14, 2022

Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB)

 


Scale name: Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB)

Scale overview: The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWB) is a self-report 29-item measure of spiritual wellbeing. There are two subscales: 10-items assess Existential Well-Being (EWB) and 10 assess Religious Well-Being (RWB).

 Response Type: Items are rated on a 6-point scale of agreement:

SA   Strongly Agree

MA   Moderately Agree

A   Agree

D   Disagree

MD   Moderately Disagree

SD   Strongly Disagree

See the manual for scoring instructions.

Scale items

Please see the freely available scale pdf for the items in your preferred language.

 

Reliability: See the manual page 3.

The RWBS, EWBS, and SWBS have good reliability. For the RWBS, test-retest reliability coefficients across four studies, with 1-10 weeks between testings, are .96, .99,

.96, and .88. For the EWBS, the coefficients are .86, .98, .98, and .73. For total SWBS,

the coefficients are .93, .99, .99, and .82.

The index of internal consistency, coefficient alpha, also shows high reliability. Across 7 samples, the internal consistency coefficients ranged from .82 to .94 (RWB), .78 to .86 (EWB), and .89 to .94 (SWB) (Bufford, Paloutzian, & Ellison, 1991).

Validity:

See the manual page 4.

SWB, RWB, and EWB are correlated positively with a positive self-concept, sense of purpose in life, physical health, and emotional adjustment. They are negatively correlated with ill health, emotional maladjustment, and lack of purpose in life (Bufford, Paloutzian, & Ellison, 1991). See Paloutzian et al., (2012, 2021) for more extensive and up-to-date information.

 

Availability: (Note these links worked on 14 October 2022)

I found the manual with the scale and details at this address

https://www.westmont.edu/sites/default/files/users/user401/SWBS%20Manual%202.0_0.pdf

The scale is available in many languages and there is no cost but users must include the copyright information.

This is a link to the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, which is available in many languages. https://www.westmont.edu/psychology/raymond-paloutzian-spiritual-wellbeing-scale

 

Reference for the scale

Bufford, Rodger & Paloutzian, Raymond & Ellison, Craig. (1991). The Spiritual Well-Being Scale. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 19. 56-70. 10.1177/009164719101900106.


Additional references may be found at this link

(Note this link worked on 14 October 2022)

https://www.westmont.edu/psychology/raymond-paloutzian-spiritual-wellbeing-scale

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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 Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 A Related Book on Spiritual Well-Being




 

 

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

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Wednesday, September 7, 2022

Attitudes and Experiences of Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

 


Scale name: Attitudes and Experiences of Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

Scale overview: Lloyd and Waller (2020) used nine items to assess the relationship of spiritual etiology to mental distress in a British sample (n = 446).

 

Response Type and items:

The 9-questions were organized into three groups. Respondents were presented with different response options depending on the question.

1. Spiritualization of Mental Distress 1-4

Example: Has your current or previous church or related teaching taught that mental distress was the result of demons, spirits or generational curses? Response options were yes, no, or unsure.

2. Views on secular/psychological treatments 5 – 7.

Example: 5. Do you believe psychological treatments, such as therapy, can be successful in treating mental distress? Response options were yes, no, or unsure. Questions 6-7 asked about church support.

3. Interaction with the Church community 8-9

Example: Overall, how do you feel about your church’s attitude towards mental distress? This was rated on a 5-point scale of very positive to very negative. The next items asked, “How has your interaction with the church, in relation to your mental health, affected your faith?” Response options were Strengthened it, Not impacted it, or Weakened it.

The researchers also asked about the cause of mental distress. Respondents had five options. Examples include traumatic or negative life experiences and Other spiritual causes (generational curses, demonic, the occult, etc.)

Results

The researchers reported the percentage of responses endorsed in two tables and provided a summary in the text. In the discussion, they note differences with similar surveys in the United States

Availability:

The questions can be found in the article below. The 9-questions are in Table 1 along with the answers.

Reference for the scale

Christopher E. M. Lloyd & Robert M. Waller (2020): Demon? Disorder? Or none of the above? A survey of the attitudes and experiences of evangelical Christians with mental distress, Mental Health, Religion & Culture, DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2019.1675148

Pdf found on Researchgate 7 September 2022

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday, June 8, 2022

Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy (SMSE)

 


Scale name: Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy (SMSE)

Scale overview: The Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy scale is a 10-item self-report measure of a person’s ability to learn from spiritual models.

The scale is based on Bandura’s social learning theory. People learn best from models when they perceive they have the capacity to do what the model does (self-efficacy).

 Read more about self-efficacy.

Authors: Doug Oman et al. (See reference article below.)

Response Type: Respondents were instructed to rate each item on a scale from 0 (cannot do at all) to 100 (certain can do) representing the degree of certainty that they could perform the action described in each item.

Sample items

1. Identify persons in my family or community who, at least in some

respects, offer good spiritual examples for me

3. Be aware almost daily of the spiritual actions and attitudes of people in my

family and community who are good spiritual examples

 

Subscales = 2

SMSE-C five items refer to community models

SMSE-P five items refer to prominent models

 

Reliability: 7-week test-retest reliability was .83 in Oman et al. (2009).

Validity: The authors report evidence of construct, divergent, and convergent validity in the article.

 

Availability: The items can be found in Table 1 on page 283 of the article.

Permissions -- if identified

Contact author:  Doug Oman, School of Public Health, 50 University Hall #7360, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94971-7360.

E-mail: dougoman@post.harvard.edu

Reference for the scale

 Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Park, C. L., Shaver, P. R., Hood, R. W., & Plante, T. G. (2012). Spiritual modeling self-efficacy. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(4), 278–297. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027941

Additional related reference

Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Park, C. L., Shaver, P. R., Hood, R. W., & Plante, T. G.  2009). How does one become spiritual? The Spiritual Modeling Inventory of Life Environments (SMILE). Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12, 427–456. doi: 10.1080/13674670902758257

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

More Self-Efficacy Scales

Academic Self-Efficacy Scale >>    ASE

Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Scale >>     MSEAQ

Self-Efficacy Scale (General) >>    SES

Reading Self-Efficacy scales >>    RSES





 

 

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

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FOLLOW me on

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Read my published articles:

 

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Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

 

 

 

 


Thursday, May 19, 2022

Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) scale- Short Form

 


Scale name: Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) scale- Short Form

Scale overview: The Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments scale- Short Form (ASPIRES-SF) is a 13-item scale that measures both religious involvement and spiritual transcendence. Spiritual transcendence refers to the way people create a sense of meaning and purpose for their lives.

Authors: Ralph L. Piedmont et al. (see below)

Response Type: The ASPIRES-SF is a self-report assessment with different ratings for the two subscales—see below.

Subscales = 2

1.  Religiosity Index

  4-religious activity (e.g., prayer, reading religious literature) items are rated 1-7 to indicate frequency.

2.  Spiritual Transcendence Scale

  9-items are rated on a 1-5 scale of agreement. The items refer to a sense of meaning. These 9-items reflect 3 facets: Prayer fulfillment, Universality, and Connectedness.

Reliability: In the 2008 reference (see below) alpha values were .72 for the total transcendence scale and .79 for the Religiosity Index.

Validity: Several studies have reported on the results of the factor structure of the longer form of ASPIRES. The 2008 study included the results of a Principal Components Analysis showing 3 factors for the Spiritual Transcendence Scale and one factor for Religiosity

 

Availability: Author contract:   rpiedmont@loyola.edu

Permissions -- if identified

 

Reference for the scale

Piedmont, R. L., Kennedy, M. C., Sherman, M. F., Sherman, N. C., & Williams, J. E. G. (2008). "A Psychometric Evaluation Of The Assessment Of Spirituality And Religious Sentiments (Aspires) Scale: Short Form". In Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 19. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004166462.i-299.55

 

Reference for using scales in research:

Buy Creating Surveys on

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AMAZON

  


 





 

Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Buy Applied Statistics for Counselors

 

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Understanding the Psychological Soul of Spirituality

   by Ralph Piedmont and Teresa Wilkins









Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

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Read published articles:

 

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Monday, April 25, 2022

Spiritual Assessment & Counseling Trauma Survivors



Completing a set of scales is not always the best way to assess spirituality at the beginning of psychotherapy. Nevertheless, I agree with others (e.g., Richards, et al., 2015; Worthington et al., 1996) that the assessment of spirituality is important to counseling and psychotherapy because so many people report that their faith is important to them and many prefer to receive psychotherapy from someone who shares their faith or at least respects their faith.

The assessment of spirituality in the context of psychotherapy should also be in the context of other assessment such as within the SCOPES model where spirituality, if important to a patient, is usually a part of the self-identity and interconnected with their emotions, thoughts, social relationships, and personality (See the SCOPES model for details).

In this post, I will review suggestions from Richards et al. (2015) and include a link to other posts containing measures from which clinicians can draw questions to use in clinical work or practice-based assessment.

Early questions to ask (pp. 82-83)

“Is religion or spirituality important in your life?”

“Do you wish to discuss religious or spiritual issues during counseling?” 

“Are you aware of any religious or spiritual resources in your life that could be used to help you?” 

“How do you think your spirituality can help you in your therapy goals?”

Trauma related questions p. 83

The authors suggest additional questions related to the presenting trauma. The questions are adapted by the clinician to fit with the patient's narrative of the traumatic experience.

“How do you feel this traumatic experience has affected your spiritual and religious life?” 

“Did this trauma cause any spiritual damage in your life?” 

“Has this trauma caused any confusion, questions, or changes in your religious or spiritual beliefs?” 

“What kind of spiritual needs do you have now in the aftermath of this trauma?”

How spirituality helps p. 84

Richards et al. remind readers that trauma does not always weaken faith. Spirituality can be helpful. Here are some related questions.

“What are some of your spiritual strengths that you still have, even after this traumatic experience?” 

“In what ways has your religious community and/or your spiritual beliefs helped you cope with the trauma you have experienced?” 

“What are some of the spiritual resources in your life that can help you recover?”

Cite this post:

Sutton, G. W. (2022, April 25). Spiritual assessment & counseling trauma survivors. Statistics. SuttonG. Retrieved from https://statistics.suttong.com/2022/04/spiritual-assessment-counseling-trauma.html

Link to Spirituality Questionnaires


References

Richards, P. S., Hardman, R. K., Lea, T., & Berrett, M. E. (2015). Religious and spiritual assessment of trauma survivors. In Spiritually oriented psychotherapy for trauma. (pp. 77–102). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14500-005 

  Book Link https://amzn.to/3KdgaA3 

Sutton, G. W. (2022, April 25). Spiritual assessment & counseling trauma survivors. Statistics. SuttonG. Retrieved from https://statistics.suttong.com/2022/04/spiritual-assessment-counseling-trauma.html

Worthington, E. L. Jr., Kurusu, T. A., McCullough, M. E., & Sanders, S. J. (1996). Empirical research on religion and psychotherapeutic processes and outcomes: A ten-year review and research prospectus. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 448–487. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.3.448

Related book by  Psychologist Jamie Aten


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