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Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy (SMSE)


Scale name: Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy (SMSE)

Scale overview: The Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy scale is a 10-item self-report measure of a person’s ability to learn from spiritual models.

The scale is based on Bandura’s social learning theory. People learn best from models when they perceive they have the capacity to do what the model does (self-efficacy).

 Read more about self-efficacy.

Authors: Doug Oman et al. (See reference article below.)

Response Type: Respondents were instructed to rate each item on a scale from 0 (cannot do at all) to 100 (certain can do) representing the degree of certainty that they could perform the action described in each item.

Sample items

1. Identify persons in my family or community who, at least in some

respects, offer good spiritual examples for me

3. Be aware almost daily of the spiritual actions and attitudes of people in my

family and community who are good spiritual examples


Subscales = 2

SMSE-C five items refer to community models

SMSE-P five items refer to prominent models


Reliability: 7-week test-retest reliability was .83 in Oman et al. (2009).

Validity: The authors report evidence of construct, divergent, and convergent validity in the article.


Availability: The items can be found in Table 1 on page 283 of the article.

Permissions -- if identified

Contact author:  Doug Oman, School of Public Health, 50 University Hall #7360, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94971-7360.


Reference for the scale

Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Park, C. L., Shaver, P. R., Hood, R. W., & Plante, T. G. (2012). Spiritual modeling self-efficacy. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(4), 278–297.

Additional related reference

Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Park, C. L., Shaver, P. R., Hood, R. W., & Plante, T. G.  2009). How does one become spiritual? The Spiritual Modeling Inventory of Life Environments (SMILE). Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12, 427–456. doi: 10.1080/13674670902758257


Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


More Self-Efficacy Scales

Academic Self-Efficacy Scale >>    ASE

Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Scale >>     MSEAQ

Self-Efficacy Scale (General) >>    SES

Reading Self-Efficacy scales >>    RSES




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