Showing posts with label Measuring virtues. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Measuring virtues. Show all posts

Tuesday, November 29, 2022

Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test-Short Form (GRAT-S)


Scale name: Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test-Short Form (GRAT-S)

Scale overview: The short form of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT-S) is a self-report measure, which consists of 16 items assessing trait gratitude.

The original GRAT scale by Watkins et al. (2003) consisted of 44 items rated on a five point scale of agreement. The 16-item short form (GRAT-S) was used by Watkins et al. (2017) in a study about joy and gratitude.

Response Type: The 16 items are rated on a 9-point scale of agreement from 1 = I strongly disagree to 9 = I strongly agree with the statement.

Sample Scale items

1. I couldn't have gotten where I am today without the help of many people.

6. I really don't think that I've gotten all the good things that I deserve in life. (Reverse score)


Reliability: Watkins et al. (2017) reported GRAT-S Cronbach’s alpha = .84.

Validity: The GRAT-S was positively correlated with the State Joy Scale and the Dispositional Joy Scale (Watkins et al., 2017).



The short form was available this date from the Berkeley Greater Good Science Center.

Trait Gratitude and Wholistic Assessment

As a personality trait, gratitude may be viewed as a facet of observable behavior patterns (O) in the SCOPES model. As measured on the GRAT-S, the trait appears to have attendant dimensions of cognition (C ) and emotion (E). See measures related to SCOPES in Creating Surveys (Sutton, 2021).

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2022, November 29). Gratitude resentment and appreciation test short form GRAT-S). Assessment, Statistics, and Research. Retrieved from



Sutton, G. W. (2021). Creating surveys: Second Edition: How to create and administer surveys, evaluate workshops & seminars, interpret and present results. Springfield, MO: Sunflower.   AMAZON   Paperback ISBN-13:  9798712780327     website

Watkins, P.C., Emmons, R. A., Greaves, M. R. & Bell, J. (2018) Joy is a distinct positive emotion: Assessment of joy and relationship to gratitude and well-being, The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13:5, 522-539, DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2017.1414298

Watkins, P. C., Woodward, K., Stone, T., & Kolts, R. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: Development of a measure of gratitude, and relationships with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 31, 431-452. DOI: 10.2224/sbp.2003.31.5.431

Related Posts

GQ-6 Gratitude Questionnaire

Gratitude Psychology


Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index





The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.


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Thursday, November 3, 2022

GRATITUDE - Measuring Gratitude

In this post, I refer to a set of items to assess gratitude. The Gratitude Questionnaire uses six items and was published by McCullough, Emmons, and Tsang in 2002.

I have written elsewhere about gratitude. People high in the virtue of gratitude are often high in other virtues as well such as optimism and life satisfaction. They also tend to be more religious. In a previous post, The Psychology of Gratitude, I list some suggestions to increase gratitude.

In previous research, the authors found support for one factor. Coefficient alpha, a measure of interitem consistency, ranged from .76 to .84 in samples reported by the authors  (McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; McCullough, Tsang, & Emmons, 2002).

Rating the Scale Items

When using the scale in surveys the items are rated on a 7-point scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7). High scores indicate a higher level of self-reported gratitude.

Here's the 7-point rating: 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = slightly disagree 4 = neutral 5 = slightly agree 6 = agree 7 = strongly agree

Here are the six-items from the scale:

____1. I have so much in life to be thankful for.

____2. If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would be a very long list.

____3. When I look at the world, I don’t see much to be grateful for.*

____4. I am grateful to a wide variety of people.

____5. As I get older I find myself more able to appreciate the people, events, and situations that have been part of my life history.

____6. Long amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful to something or someone.*

*The items marked with an asterisk are reverse scored so a score of 7 counts as 1 and a score of 6 become 2 and so on.

The total score should be between 6 and 42.

A score of 38 was at the 50th percentile in a sample of 1,224. See the link for more information.

And, here is a link to research studies using the scale (Gratitude Questionnaire). You will find information on scoring and interpreting the scores.

The scale has been used in research studies along with other scales.

It may also be relevant in some counseling situations.

Availability and Use
At the time of this post, a free download was available from Penn Arts & Sciences

Related Posts

Learn more assessment and statistical concepts in

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from  AMAZON    or from  GOOGLE BOOKS

Add the Gratitude items to a survey- Learn more about Creating Surveys

BUY from  AMAZON  or from   GOOGLE BOOKS


Resource Link for more tests and questionnaires A – Z Test Index

Gratitude References

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2022, November 3). Gratitude: Measuring gratitude. Assessment, Statistics, and Research. Retrieved from 


McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127.

McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 295-309.

Also, learn more about assessment and statistics at the Applied Statistics website

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Post tags
#gratitude  #positivepsychology  #measuringvirtues

Post updated 4 Nov 2022

Wednesday, February 14, 2018

COURAGE - How to Measure Courage

Lions of Kruger/ Geoff Sutton 2009

Courage is a virtue.

Despite being an ancient virtue, courage is a relatively new topic of study in psychological science. As with any psychological concept, definitions can vary. Woodward and his colleagues have begun a line of inquiry, which includes a measurement scale.

Here’s a 2007 definition:

“Courage is the voluntary willingness to act, with or without varying levels of fear, in response to a threat to achieve an important, perhaps moral, outcome or goal. (p. 136)”

Factor analysis suggested participants identified three types of threats: Physical, social, and emotional. When scale items were analyzed, four factors emerged, which were categorized by the authors as follows:

1. work/employment courage
2. patriotic/religion/belief-based courage
3. social-moral courage
4. independent or family-based courage

23-item Measure

A popular measure of courage is the Woodard Pury Courage Scale, which consists of 23-items (2007).

Each item describes a situation. Participants read each item and provide two responses. First, they provide a rating of agreement from 1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree. Second, they rate how fearful they would be in a situation from 1 = Little Fear to 5 = Very High Fear.

Items deal with various life situations such as highly challenging work situations and intervening in a dangerous interpersonal situation.

Educators, researchers, and students may want to add a courage scale to their survey projects.

Creating Surveys

Create better surveys for work and school


Conditions of Use

The scale may be used in non-commercial research and educational survey projects. Contact the author for commercial use. The full scale is protected by copyright and not for public posting.

Locating the full set of scale items

Find the scale in the article—see the reference at the end of this post. The 23-items are listed in the Appendix to the article (page 147). It is also available for download in PsycTESTS ®

Read more about Courage in chapter 2 of Living Well

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Woodard, Cooper R., & Pury, Cynthia L. S. (2007). The construct of courage: Categorization and measurement. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(2), 135-147. doi: 10.1037/1065-9293.59.2.135

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Tuesday, January 2, 2018

Measuring Attitudes about Trust

Recently, I read a Gallup survey reporting the views of Americans about ethics and honesty of people in various professions. In a sense, the findings indicate how much Americans trust the people in the professions. Nurses won the top spot at 84% "very high" ratings—they have been #1 for 15 years in a row. Clergy are in the middle at 44% and Members of Congress at the bottom of their list at 8%.  
Read the survey for more details of this 2017 study.

I was surprised by the clergy data. And found another survey, which produced similar results in the UK. The Ipsos MORI poll reported that school-age children highly trusted doctors to tell the truth (88%). But clergy came in at 46%, which is below Scientists at 53%.

Levels of trust can vary. And trust can be defined in different ways.

How do you measure trust?

I found two short trust scales at the Fetzer organization, which are available in a pdf document (see below). You will find references to studies in addition to a description of the scales.

The General Trust Scale was developed by Yamagishi (1986). It uses a 5-item Likert type rating scale where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree.

Two sample items are:

1.) Most people are basically honest.
2.) Most people are trustworthy.

The scale is score by adding the items together.

The 5-item Trust Scale is also available and rated on the same 5-item Likert-type scale of agreement.

Two sample items are:

1.) Most people tell a lie when they can benefit by doing so.
2.) Those devoted to unselfish causes are often exploited by others.

Following is a link to the Fetzer document where you can download the measures and research summaries.

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Learn more about Creating Surveys, including many free items 

AMAZON Kindle and Paperback


Some readers may find this reference guide helpful. It is recommended for first year graduate students in counseling programs.


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My Books  AMAZON          and             GOOGLE STORE


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Articles: Academia   Geoff W Sutton   ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ)

  Assessment name: Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) Scale overview: The Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) is a 6-item self-repor...