Showing posts with label Narcissism. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Narcissism. Show all posts

Thursday, April 21, 2022

Workplace Arrogance Scale (WARS)


Scale name: Workplace Arrogance Scale (WARS)

Scale overview: The 26-item Workplace Arrogance Scale measures arrogance in the workplace based on self-report using a 5-point rating scale.

Authors: Russell E. Johnson of Michigan State University and others—see the article reference for the author list.

Response Type: A 5-point Likert type rating scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree

Sample items:

1. Believes that s/he knows better than everyone else in any given situation

2. Makes decisions that impact others without listening to their input

Reliability: The 26-item WARS alpha was .93 in Johnson et al., 2010.

Validity Factor analysis indicated a one-factor scale. Arrogance was positively correlated with dominance, anger, superiority, entitlement, and vanity.

Arrogance was negatively correlated with humility, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and self-sufficiency. Arrogance was not related to authority.

Availability: See Table A1 on page 427 of the 2010 article for the 26 items.

Contact: Russell E. Johnson,



Johnson, R. E., Silverman, S. B., Shyamsunder, A., Swee, H.-Y., Rodopman, O. B., Cho, E., & Bauer, J. (2010). Acting superior but actually inferior?: Correlates and consequences of workplace arrogance. Human Performance23(5), 403–427.

Human Performance is a Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group journal.

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Tuesday, January 12, 2021

Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory - 13 (NPI-13) was developed by Gentile et al. (2013). It is a shortened version of the 40-item NPI.

The authors describe trait narcissism as a trait on a continuum with features of "a grandiose sense of self, feelings of entitlement, and a dominant and antagonistic interpersonal style (p. 1120)."

Scale and subscales

The NPI-13 has three subscales (Cronbach alpha values in parentheses):

Leadership/authority (.66)

Grandiose Exhibitionism (.65)

Entitlement/ exploitativeness (.51)

Total Scale alpha = .73.

Psychometric Properties

In general, the three NPI scales were significantly positively correlated with grandiose scales from the PNI and NGS, psychological entitlement, and both self-report and interview-based symptom of NPD. All three were also positively related to self-esteem scores," (Gentile et al., 2013, p. 1124).

The authors also found positive correlations between the NPI scales and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders of paranoid, antisocial, and histrionic.

See Gentile et al. (2013) below for details of the two studies and how the NPI-13 and other versions performed.

Sample items

I like having authority over other people.

I have a strong will to power.

Read more about Narcissistic  Personality Disorder

 and the other two components of the "Toxic Triad."

Permission to use

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.


The 13 test items are listed in the PsycTESTS entry listed below.

Gentile, B., Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Reidy, D. E., Zeichner, A., & Campbell, W. K. (2013). Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13. PsycTESTS. 

SCOPES domain = O/ Observable behavior patterns/personality

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2021, January 12). Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13. Assessment, Statistics, and Research.


Gentile, Brittany, Miller, Joshua D., Hoffman, Brian J., Reidy, Dennis E., Zeichner, Amos, & Campbell, W. Keith. (2013). A test of two brief measures of grandiose narcissism: The Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13 and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1120-1136. doi: 

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Learn more about Narcissism at

   Psychology's Toxic Triad (Narcissism, Psychopathy, Machiavellianism)

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Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Dark Triad Scale (Dirty Dozen)

The toxic triad is commonly known as the Dark Triad

The triad consists of three sets of personality traits 
representing features of 

Psychopathic, and 

personality clusters. 

The Dirty Dozen Scale

Psychological Scientists Peter Jonason and Gregory Webster developed a scale known as the Dirty Dozen (2010), which uses 12-items to identify key features of this “Dark” or Toxic Triad.

Here’s the 12 items

1.      I tend to manipulate others to get my way.
2.      I tend to lack remorse.
3.      I tend to want others to admire me.
4.      I tend to be unconcerned with the morality of my actions.
5.      I have used deceit or lied to get my way.
6.      I tend to be callous or insensitive.
7.      I have used flattery to get my way.
8.      I tend to seek prestige or status.
9.      I tend to be cynical.
10.  I tend to exploit others toward my own end.
11.  I tend to expect special favors from others.
12.  I want others to pay attention to me.

Each item is rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale based how much it applies to a person. Here’s the subscales:

Narcissism = 3, 8, 11, 12
Psychopathy = 2, 4, 6, 9
Machiavellianism = 1, 5, 7, 10

As you can see, scores could range from 12 to 84. Webster & Jonason (2013) examined the scale in samples totaling 1,014 college students. The second sample used the 7-point rating scale, which resulted in an overall item mean of 2.92 and SD of 1.07.

Overall alpha was .87. See Table 3 of their article for more details. Note that this is a general population college sample thus we would expect higher scores in clinical samples.

For a more recent meta-analytic review of various measures of the Dark Triad, see Muris et al., 2017 (reference below).

Wholistic Assessment Note
In a wholistic assessment, behavior traits are components of Observed Behavior Patterns or Personality, which is the "O" in the SCOPES model of functioning.

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Jonason, P. K., & Webster, G. D. (2010). The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 420-432. doi:10.1037/a0019265 [See Table 8 on page 429 for the list of the 12 items.]

Muris, P.,  Merckelback, H., Otgaar, H. & Meijer, E. (2017). The Malevolent Side of Human Nature: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review of the Literature on the Dark Triad (Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Psychopathy). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12 (2), 183-204.

Webster, G. D., & Jonason, P. K. (2013). Putting the 'irt' in 'dirty': Item response theory analyses of the dark triad dirty dozen—an efficient measure of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(2), 302-306. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.08.027

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