Skip to main content


Showing posts from August, 2021

Forgiveness Likelihood Scale (FLS)

  Scale name: Forgiveness Likelihood Scale (FLS) Scales overview:   The Forgiveness Likelihood Scale ( FLS) is a scenario-based 10-item scale. Respondents read the scenarios and decide how likely they would be to forgive the offender using a 5-point rating scale. Authors: Mark S. Rye et al. 2001 Response Type: A 5-point Likert-type response rating that ranges from 1 = Not at all likely to 5 = Extremely likely. Subscales: None Sample items: “One of your friends starts a nasty rumor about you that is not true. As a result, people begin treating you worse than they have in the past. What is the likelihood that you would choose to forgive your friend?”   “Your significant other has a ‘one night stand’ and becomes sexually involved with someone else. What is the likelihood that you would choose to forgive your significant other?”   Reliability The authors used factor analysis  and report the results in their article. Cronbach’s alpha was .85. Test-retest reliability w

Forgiveness Scale Rye 2001

  Scale name: Forgiveness Scale Scales overview This is a 15-item revision of an earlier version measuring how participants respond to wrongdoing. Authors: Mark S. Rye et al (2001) See below.   Response Type Likert-type 5 options ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) Subscales: 2 factors reported as  AN = absence of negative responses and  PP = presence of positive responses toward the wrongdoer. Sample items “I spend time thinking about ways to get back at the person who wronged  me” “If I encountered the person who wronged me I would feel at peace.”  Reliability Cronbach alphas : AN =.86, PP = .85 Test retest : AN =.76, PP = .80 Validity ( see validity ) Significant positive correlations with the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale, Enright Forgiveness Inventory, and a Single Item Forgiveness rating. Availability: See the appendix in the article below (Rye et al., 2001). Permissions -- if identified   Scale Reference Rye, M. S., Loiacon

Presenting Data & Different Olympic Winners Stats

 Congratulations to Team USA for an outstanding performance at Tokyo 2020 in 2021 I enjoy sports. I used to follow player stats as a boy and kept track of my own even though I wasn't much of an athlete. The Olympic medals offer an opportunity to see how different presentations of data make a difference. You could even offer more perspectives if you consider many other countries than the top winners.  ALL MEDALS : The USA easily wins overall. Great Britain beats Japan. USA WINS OVERALL GOLD :  Team USA just edges China. Japan beats Great Britain in Gold. POPULATION :  Team GB wins among the top 4. The odds of having top athletes increase with population size. China's population is huge compared to most nations so they don't do so well. You can find countries with smaller populations who did extremely well like Australia. There are of course other factors to consider. Perhaps you thought of some? Wealth. Importance of Sport. The unique problems of COVID-19 infections of some