Showing posts with label Religious coping. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Religious coping. Show all posts

Monday, April 11, 2022

Biblical Conservatism - A 4-item measure

 


Scale name: Biblical Conservatism Measure

Scale overview: The Biblical Conservatism Measure is a 4-item scale designed to assess conservative beliefs about the Bible, Koran, or Torah.

Authors: Weyand, O’Laughlin, & Bennett

Response Type: Items are rated on a 4-point Likert type scale from 1 = strongly disagree and 4 – strongly agree.

Sample item:

The Bible/Koran/Torah/other religious text is God’s word and everything will happen exactly as it says.

 

Psychometrics:

In the 2013 study 1, M = 10.07, SD = 3.4

Reliability: Internal consistency = .75 (Weand et al., (2013).

Validity: See how the measure performed with other measures in the full article below.

Availability:  See the PsycTESTS reference for the items.

Permissions

 

“Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission.  Distribution must be controlled.”

 Other measures used in the study

Brief RCOPE (Religious coping)

Sanctification of Parenting scale

References

  Weyand, C., O’Laughlin, L., & Bennett, P. (2013). Biblical Conservatism Measure [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t28364-000

 Weyand, C., O'Laughlin, L., & Bennett, P. (2013). Dimensions of religiousness that influence parenting. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5(3), 182-191. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030627

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


Related Measures

👉  Biblical Literalism Scale

👉  Intratextual Fundamentalism Scale


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  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

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Monday, February 7, 2022

Behaviors Toward God Scale (BTGS)

 


Scale name:    Behaviors Toward God Scale (BTGS)

Scale overview: The Behaviors Toward God Scale (BTGS) is an 18-item self-report measure of  behavioral responses toward God when people experience a spiritual or religious struggle. The items are grouped into four subscales.

Authors: Julie J. Exline et al. (2021)

Response Type:  

Participants read a statement and rate their behavioral response from 0 = not at all to 10 = extremely.

Subscales: Four (sample item in parentheses)

1. Approach – draw close (tried to trust God)

2. Disengage - turn away or exit (ignored God)

3. Protest-  complain, argue, or question (asked God "Why?")

4. Suppress – avoid or minimize negative feelings toward God (tried to hide feelings of anger or disappointment toward God)

 

Reliability: alpha values for the four subscales ranged from .80 to .89 in study 1 and .79 to .91 in study 2 (Exline et al., 2021)

Validity: The Exline  et al. 2021 article includes the results of factor analyses and correlations with other measures. A technical report by Stauner & Exline (2020) provides a look at the factor structure of a 23-item version, which was reduced to 18-items.

Availability: Author contact email Dr. Julie J. Exline   julie.exline@case.edu

Permissions -- if identified

 References

Exline, J. J., Wilt, J. A., Stauner, N., & Pargament, K. I. (2021). Approach, disengagement, protest, and suppression: Four behaviors toward God in the context of religious/spiritual struggle. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000445.supp (Supplemental)

Stauner, N. & Exline, J.J. (2020). Factor analysis of behaviors toward God. Unpublished technical report available from osf.io

 

Reference for using scales in research:

Buy Creating Surveys on

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Buy Applied Statistics for Counselors

 

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AMAZON

 


 





 


Resource Link for more tests:  A – Z Test Index

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

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FOLLOW me on

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ) by Kathryn Hope Keller

 


Scale name: Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)

Scale overview: The Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire that uses a 4-point Likert Type response format to measure two dimensions of abuse: Power-based affective wounding and Conditionality.

Author: Kathryn Hope Keller

 

Response Type: 4-point Likert type. The choices are: Strongly disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly agree.

Subscales and Sample Items: There are two subscales.

1. Power-based Affective Wounding: “At times, I was

scolded by my leader and made to feel ashamed and helpless” and “I now feel cynical

about church/religious groups.”

 

2. Conditionality: “I believed I could be totally surrendered to God if I did everything

perfectly according to the church/group’s instructions,” and “I believed God would

punish me if I didn’t do what my church/group encouraged me to do.”

Reliability: Alpha for the 17-item scale was .95 (Keller, 2016). The study sample was 271 and the mean was 50.62 (SD = 14.87, SEM = .90) and Min-Max were 21-80.

Validity: Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution.

For the RSS, r =.76, p<.01. For the subscales, results are as follows: Divine Struggles, r=.68, p<.01; Demonic Struggles, r=.31, p<.01; Interpersonal Struggles, r=.81, p<.01; Moral Struggles, r=.52, p<.01; Doubt Struggle, r=.66, p<.01; and Ultimate Meaning Struggles, r=.54, p<.01. These findings suggest that participants with higher levels of spiritual abuse also experience higher levels of religious and spiritual struggles. (Keller, 2016, page 138)

 

Note. The RSS is the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale

 Availability: See pages 226-227 in the dissertation reference below.

Related Posts

Spiritual and Religious Abuse

Spiritual and Religious Harassment


Permissions -- if identified

Author contact in 2021 https://www.kellerpsychology.com/drkeller.html 

 Reference

Keller, K.R. (2016). Development of a spiritual abuse questionnaire. Dissertation available from https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/8760

Reference for using scales in research:

Buy Creating Surveys on

GOOGLE BOOKS

 

AMAZON

 


 Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Buy Applied Statistics for Counselors

 

GOOGLE BOOKS

 

AMAZON

 


Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 29, 2021

Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief

 


Scale name:  Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief

Scale overview

The ICSG is an 18-item scale. Participants are asked to think about their loss and respond to items to express their beliefs about their feelings.

A second version was published as ICSG 2.0 in 2019.

Authors: Laurie A. Burke and others (2014) - see reference below

Version 2.0 See Burke et al 2019

Response Type

All items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type rating.

Subscales: The authors list items associated with two subscales:

1. Insecurity with God

2. Disruption in Religious Practice

Sample items 2014 scale

1) I don’t understand why God has made it so hard for me.

17) I sense the absence of God more than I do the presence of God.

 

Reliability and Validity

See the publications for details.

Availability

Version 1: See the Burke et al. 2014 PsycTESTS entry. The items are also in the Burke & Neimery 2016 article, Appendix

Version 2: See Burke et al. 2019

 SCOPES Domain = Self/ spirituality

Permissions -- if identified

Contact the publisher- Taylor and Francis

References

Burke, L. A., Crunk, A.E., Neimeyer, R. A. Bai, H. (2019):

Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief 2.0 (ICSG 2.0): Validation of a revised measure of spiritual distress in bereavement, Death Studies, DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2019.1627031

Burke, L. A., Neimeyer, R. A., Holland, J. M., Dennard, S., Oliver, L., & Shear, M. K. (2014). Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief. PsycTESTS. https://doi.org/10.1037/t46064-000

Burke, Laurie A., Neimeyer, Robert A., Holland, Jason M., Dennard, Sharon, Oliver, Linda, & Shear, M. Katherine. (2014). Inventory of complicated spiritual grief: Development and validation of a new measure. Death Studies, 38(4), 239-250. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2013.810098, © 2014 by Taylor & Francis

Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 


Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 



Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, December 17, 2020

Screening Questions for Spirituality in Counseling

 


Mental health professionals have recognized the importance of religion and spirituality to wellbeing. I have seen intake forms that ignore spirituality or ask only about a person’s religious identity or if they would like a visit from a chaplain or clergy during a hospitalization.

Clinicians can reasonably ask how to explore the importance of spirituality to treatment without being overly intrusive or disrespectful when a patient does not volunteer relevant information. David Hodge (2013) offers four screening questions based on his review of the literature (p. 98).

I offer a paraphrase of Hodge’s suggestions and suggest consulting his chapter, which I found in my university library (see reference below). Each question is tied to a one-word therapeutic purpose.

1. Importance

How important is spiritual or religious faith to you?

2. Affiliation

Do you attend religious services? Do you participate in any groups that would be considered religious or spiritual?

3. Resources

Are there any spiritual or religious beliefs or practices that you find helpful?

4. Relationship to psychotherapy goals

Have any of the concerns you mentioned affected you spirituality or had an influence on your faith?

The questions may be asked at any point in the psychotherapy process. Each question offers the potential for a more in-depth exploration of the patient’s faith as relevant to their psychotherapy goals.

I have posted a number of questionnaires and scales in this blog that may be helpful to further explore one or more dimensions of religious faith or spirituality. In clinical practice, it may not be important to administer an entire scale or questionnaire to obtain relevant information. Instead, clinicians might find a few items that help patient’s connect their faith to their therapeutic goals.

Read more about assessment in counseling and psychotherapy in Applied Statistics: Concepts for Counselors.



 


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Resource Link: A - Z Test Index

Reference

Hodge, D.R. (2013). Assessing spirituality and religion in the context of counseling and psychotherapy. In K. I. Pargament (Ed.) APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality: Vol. 2. An Applied Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, pp. 93-123. Washington, DC: APA.


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Articles: Academia   Geoff W Sutton   ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 


Sunday, January 12, 2020

Religious Coping: The Brief RCOPE scale



The Brief RCOPE scale is a 14-item measure of religious coping developed and studied by Kenneth Pargament (e.g., 1997) and his colleagues. The scale is based on coping theory applied to religion and aims to help researchers understand one relationship between people and their religion when they experience a stressful life experience.

Research supports two dimensions of coping reflected in the scale: positive and negative. These two dimensions are reflected in two subscales of the Brief RCOPE labelled accordingly as Positive Religious Coping Subscale (PRC) and Negative Religious Subscale (NRC).

Positive coping means drawing upon spiritual resources in a way that helps people cope with stressful events. Such people may have a secure relationship with God or a higher power, hold a benevolent worldview, and have positive relationships with religious others.

Negative religious coping indicates intrapersonal religious or spiritual struggles. The conflict may be experienced as personal tension, conflicts with God, or religious others.

Five Dimensions of Religious Coping

The coping scales address five dimensions of religious coping, which Pargament et al. (2011, p. 56) phrase in goal language using the phrase “Religious methods of coping to…” followed by a specific dimension as follows:

            1. find meaning

            2. gain control

            3. gain comfort and closeness to God

            4. gain intimacy with others and closeness to God

            5. achieve a life transformation

The Brief version of the RCOPE has 14-items and is the most commonly used measure of religious coping.

Researchers have used the Brief RCOPE with people from different ethnic groups and religious groups. Most studies in a 2011 review were based on US samples (Pargament, Feuille, & Brudzy).

Psychometric findings

Reliability: The median alpha values for the scores from the two subscales based on thousands of participants (Pargament et al., 2011) were: PRC = .92 and NRC = .81.

The relationship between the two scales is orthogonal based on most factor analyses but there are some low association values in some studies.

Validity: Several studies support the conclusion that the RCOPE usually produces adequate validity values in relationship to measures of spirituality such as wellbeing and post-traumatic growth.

To see the relationship between the RCOPE and the RSS (Religious and Spiritual Struggles) measures, see Wilt et al. (2022).

RCOPE Items

The items for the RCOPE and the Brief RCOPE can be found in a downloadable pdf available 12 January 2020 ( I cannot guarantee the link will always be operative.)


Learn more about creating surveys

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Related Posts


Spiritual Struggles Scale (Exline et al.)

Cite This Blog Post

Sutton, G.W. (2020, January 12). Religious Coping: The Brief RCOPE scale. Assessment, Statistics, & Research. https://statistics.suttong.com/ 2020/01/religious-coping-brief-rcope-scale.html


Resource Link to more tests and questionnairesA – Z Test Index



Religious Coping References

Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press. Available used and new on AMAZON

Pargament, K., Feuille, M., & Burdzy, D. (2011). The brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions, 2 (1), 51-76. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel2010051

Wilt, J. A., Exline, J. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2022). Coping with religious and spiritual struggles: Religious and secular techniques. Spirituality in Clinical Practice. https://doi.org/10.1037/scp0000289.supp (Supplemental)



See the reference section in the above references for extensive references to the RCOPE in research.


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FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton
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Publications (many free downloads)
 
Academia   Geoff W Sutton   (PhD)     

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton   (PhD)


Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE



 










A related book


        by Pargament and Exline


Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy
 by Kenneth Pargament

  on       AMAZON








Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers (WSPT)

  Scale name: Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers (WSPT) Scale overview: The Wilson Stress Profile for Teachers (WSPT) is a 36-item self-r...