Friday, September 28, 2018

The Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ)

The Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) is available online and as a download. You can take the test online and get your scores. The MFQ is designed to measure the five core moral foundations derived from Moral Foundations Theory developed by Jonathan Haidt and his colleagues. (See references at the end of this post).


The MFQ evaluates moral foundations based on answers to questions. There are five moral foundations in the MFQ:

Care-Harm
Equality-Fairness; aka fairness/cheating
Loyalty-Betrayal
Authority-Respect; aka Authority/subversion
Purity-Sanctity aka Sanctity/degradation

I added the aka because you will find somewhat different words in some articles.

See this page for a description of the five core foundations https://www.moralfoundations.org/

Researchers can use the MFQ items to create their own surveys.

The current version (2018) is a 30-item version known as the MFQ30. There is also a shorter version known as the MFQ20, which has 20 items, 4-items for each of the 5 core moral foundations.

The MFQ is available in multiple languages.

Where to get the MFQ: https://www.moralfoundations.org/questionnaires

Haidt and his colleagues have added a sixth foundation to assess liberty. There are two subscales to this foundation.

Where to get the Liberty Scale Items: 

See the Appendix at the end of the Iyer et al., article on Plos

One: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0042366#s5


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References

Graham, J., & Haidt, J. (2010). Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 140–150. doi: 10.1177/1088868309353415
Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. (2009).  Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 1029-1046. doi:10.1037/a0015141
Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., & Haidt, J. (2012). The moral stereotypes of liberals and conservatives: Exaggeration of differences across the political spectrum. PLoS ONE7(12), e50092. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050092

Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 366-385. doi:10.1037/a0021847
Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–834. doi:10.1037//0033-295x.108.4.814
Haidt, J. (2012). The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. New York: Pantheon.
Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2007).  When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research, 20, 98-116. doi:10.1007/s11211-007-0034-z
Haidt, J., & Joseph, C. (2004). Intuitive ethics: How innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues. Daedalus: Special Issue on Human Nature133(4), 55–66. doi:10.1162/0011526042365555
Iyer, R., Koleva, S., Graham, J., Ditto, P., & Haidt, J. (2012). Understanding Libertarian morality: The psychological dispositions of self-identified Libertarians. Plos One, 7(8): e42366. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042366
Johnson, K. A., Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., Sandage, S. J., & Crabtree, S. A. (2016). Moral foundation priorities reflect U.S. Christians’ individual differences in religiosity. Personality and Individual Differences. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.12.037.


Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Four Types of Measurement



Behavioral scientists commonly refer to four types of measurement or scales. Understanding the types of measurement or scales is important because some numbers have limited applications and they are misused.


The four types of measurement scales are as follows: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio.


This information is taken from Chapter 5 of Applied Statistics: Concepts for Counselors





Nominal Scale

This is often called the naming scale. The numbers allow researchers to classify people as belonging in a group. The numbers cannot be added or ranked.

If we were studying treatment of people with depression we might form two groups simply numbers 1 and 2 for those getting treatment and those on a waiting list for treatment. All people in the study have a number but the number is just a classification.

Numbers on sports team players may represent positions.

Ordinal Scale

The ordinal scale is a ranking scale. Performance can be ranked in order of high to low. You can rate projects, products, and many other human characteristics. Sporting events include rating scales when judging an atheletes performance. For example, you could rate gymnastic performance on a scale from 1 to 10 or even 1 to 100.

Interval Scale

Interval scales are common in the behavioral sciences. Many test scores are interval scores. Scientists argue about the properties of the intervals but for general purposes, these scores are routinely used in education, counseling, psychology, social work, sociology, and other disciplines.

Scores on tests of intelligence, achievement, and personality are often interval scale scores. Test administrators can calculate an arithmetic average (M, Mean) and standard deviation (SD). It is possible to compare how individuals score on a test compared to the average for their group. It is also possible to determine if group averages are different from each other.

Caution is needed with test scores. For example, a person with an IQ of 50 is NOT half as intelligent as someone with an IQ of 100. It is not correct to compare scores on tests measured on an interval scale as if the scores represented a ratio. Again, a standard score of 130 on a reading test does not mean the person is twice as good at reading as a person who score a 65.


Ratio Scale

The ratio scale is like the interval scale but the numbers can have a true zero point and we can meaningful speak about ratios.

A person who weighs 200 pounds is twice as heavy as a person who weighs 100 pounds.

Measures of height and weight are examples of ratio scales.


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