Showing posts with label Writing about Statistics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Writing about Statistics. Show all posts

Monday, July 11, 2022

Factor Analysis and Assessment EFA and CFA

 



Factor Analysis and Assessment

In testing, factor analysis is a mathematical strategy to analyze groups of items within a large test to see how well they relate to each other. The goal will be to reduce the large number of items to a set of factors that appear to measure different but related constructs; hence, factor analysis is a method of data reduction. (Sutton, 2020)

A large test of various abilities may be analyzed for ways to group different abilities. Short tests of vocabulary, verbal analogies, and synonyms might form a factor that a researcher could label as "Verbal Abilities."

A factor is a group of variables that are highly correlated with each other and, although different, they appear to have something in common. Researchers choose names for groups of variables based on the content of the variables in the factor. In large research projects, each participant may have scores on a large number of variables. Factor analysis can be used to identify patterns among the variables. Thus, it may be possible to reduce 30 variables to 5 or 6 groups of variables (that is factors).

A research database may contain several variables considered relevant to understanding the risk of child sexual abuse. Such variables may include prior abuse by a person in a close relationship to the child, age of a child, family problems, child problems, family structure, parenting difficulties, sex of the child, and so forth. Theoretically, researchers could look for patterns that may suggest ways to identify key risk factors.  (Sutton, 2020)

 

Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)

In the early phases of creating a test or questionnaire, researchers use EFA to explore or discover the structure of the measure. That is, they are looking for the number of factors that best fit the set of data.

 

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

 After the data have been explored and the number of factors that best fit the data have been determined, researchers perform a CFA on a new sample. The purpose of CFA is to confirm or reject the factor structure previously thought to be the best fit for the data.


 Link to an Index of Statistical Concepts in Psychology, Counseling, and Education

Reference

Sutton, G. W. (2020). Applied statistics: Concepts for counselors, second edition. Springfield, MO: Sunflower.

AMAZON  Paperback ISBN-10: 168821772X, ISBN-13: 978-168217720

More information:  Book website:   counselorstatistics

 

 Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Buy Applied Statistics for Counselors

 

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Resource Link:  A-Z Statistical Terms


Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

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  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

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Read published articles:

 

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Monday, September 13, 2021

Writing About Data in Psychology Papers and Reports

 

Have you seen the data?

The word data is a plural noun and takes a plural verb. See the following two examples.

Our data do not indicate why a discrepancy might exist, but the findings could be consistent with those of Kakhnovets (2011) who found that Extraversion was a factor for women but not
men in seeking psychotherapy (Sutton et al., 2018, p.20).

There are data suggesting that certain infants appear to actively suppress activation of the attachment system (i.e., have trouble seeking care). Cassidy, 2000, p. 116)

We write:

Data are not data is.

Data were not data was.

Data reveal not data reveals.

Data show not data shows.

If we wanted to write about one item from a data set, we could use the singular form, datum.

One score in a set of scores is a datum. Datum is rarely used.

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References


Cassidy, J. (2000). Adult romantic attachments: A developmental perspective on individual differences. Review of General Psychology, 4, 111-131.

Sutton, G. W., Kelly, H., Worthington, E. L. Jr., Griffin, B. J., & Dinwiddie, C. (2018) Satisfaction with Christian psychotherapy and well-being: Contributions of hope, personality, and spirituality. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 5 (1), 8-24. doi: 10.1037/scp0000145

Please check out my website   www.suttong.com

   and see my books on   AMAZON       or  GOOGLE STORE

Also, consider connecting with me on    FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton    

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton    

You can read many published articles at no charge:

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton     ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 


Thursday, January 14, 2021

Data or Datum and Statistics

 

Data. In behavioral research, the data are usually scores on scales or tests. But data may also be text in qualitative studies. Data is the plural of datum and takes a plural verb (e.g., data are).

 Datum. A single unit of information, one response on a test or questionnaire.


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Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON       

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 


Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ)

  Assessment name: Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) Scale overview: The Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) is a 6-item self-repor...