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Showing posts with the label Writing about Statistics

S-Curves Psychological Research and Statistics

 Students in many fields learn that relationships between variables may be described as a simple one-to-one correspondence or linear. We often see tables of correlations in journal articles and presentations. Unless otherwise stated, the correlations appear to assume a linear relationship exists. As one variable increases so does the other or as one variable increases, the other declines. But we also learn that some relationships are nonlinear such as the forgetting curve (remember Ebbinghaus) or the learning curve depicted as an S-shape. The classic learning curve illustrates the relationship between learning and experience and is often presented as an S-curve. At first, progress is slow—the curve of learning rises a little. Then, with experience, learning rises rapidly up to a point when it seems to level off at a person’s level of proficiency. This curve has many names such as progress curve, startup curve, and experience curve. However, we should follow the data rather than assume

Factor Analysis and Assessment EFA and CFA

  Factor Analysis and Assessment In testing, factor analysis is a mathematical strategy to analyze groups of items within a large test to see how well they relate to each other. The goal will be to reduce the large number of items to a set of factors that appear to measure different but related constructs; hence, factor analysis is a method of data reduction. (Sutton, 2020) A large test of various abilities may be analyzed for ways to group different abilities. Short tests of vocabulary, verbal analogies, and synonyms might form a factor that a researcher could label as "Verbal Abilities." A factor is a group of variables that are highly correlated with each other and, although different, they appear to have something in common. Researchers choose names for groups of variables based on the content of the variables in the factor. In large research projects, each participant may have scores on a large number of variables. Factor analysis can be used to identify patterns amo

Writing About Data in Psychology Papers and Reports

  Have you seen the data? The word data  is a plural noun and takes a plural verb. See the following two examples. Our data do not indicate why a discrepancy might exist, but the findings could be consistent with those of Kakhnovets (2011) who found that Extraversion was a factor for women but not men in seeking psychotherapy (Sutton et al., 2018, p.20). There are data suggesting that certain infants appear to actively suppress activation of the attachment system (i.e., have trouble seeking care). Cassidy, 2000, p. 116) We write: Data are not data is. Data were not data was. Data reveal not data reveals. Data show not data shows. If we wanted to write about one item from a data set, we could use the singular form, datum. One score in a set of scores is a datum. Datum is rarely used. Learn More about analyzing and writing about research in  Buy Creating Surveys  on GOOGLE BOOKS   AMAZON References Cassidy, J. (2000). Adult romantic attachments: A developmental perspective on indiv

Data or Datum and Statistics

  Data . In behavioral research, the data are usually scores on scales or tests. But data may also be text in qualitative studies. Data is the plural of datum and takes a plural verb (e.g., data are).   Datum . A single unit of information, one response on a test or questionnaire. Creating Surveys on AMAZON    or   GOOGLE  Worldwide Links to Connections Checkout My Website    See my Books    AMAZON             GOOGLE STORE   FOLLOW me on    FACEBOOK     Geoff W. Sutton          TWITTER    @Geoff.W.Sutton      PINTEREST   Read published articles:     Academia    Geoff W Sutton         ResearchGate    Geoffrey W Sutton