Skip to main content


Showing posts with the label primacy & recency bias

Response set and bias in surveys

Response set  is a tendency to respond similarly to all or many questions such as frequently choosing "somewhat agree" on scale options ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." Response bias occurs when respondents deliberately give false responses. There are many forms of response bias. Acquiescence bias occurs when respondents select only positive answers. This is also called "yea-saying." Demand characteristics influence answers to survey items when the respondent attempts to provide answers according to the way they think an ideal participant should respond. Extreme bias occurs when respondents frequently choose the extreme options on survey items such as the "Strongly Agree" and "Strongly Disagree" options. Hostility bias  occurs when respondents feel provoked by items in the survey. Researchers must take care in wording items that may be sensitive. Explanations and instructions might help reduc