Tuesday, May 25, 2021

Forgiveness- Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations


Scale name: Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations (TRIM)

Scale overview

A 12-item self-report assessment of interpersonal motivations related to forgiveness. This version has two subscales. The Avoidance subscale has 7 items and the Revenge subscale has 5 items.

There is a related 7-item benevolence subscale measuring benevolent motivations to forgive.

Authors: McCullough et al., 1998

Response Type

All items are rated on a 5-point Likert-type rating.

Subscales

Avoidance, Revenge, plus Benevolence

Sample items

Avoidance: “I live as if he/she doesn’t exist, isn’t around,”

Revenge: “I’ll make him/her pay,”

Benevolence: “Even though his/her actions hurt me, I still have goodwill for him/her”

Reliability

See McCullough et al. (1998) for details on the psychometric properties of the TRIM-12.

Validity

See McCullough et al. (1998) for details on the psychometric properties of the TRIM-12.

Availability

See the article in the APA PsycArticles Database or the Journal (reference below).

Test Reference

McCullough, M.E. , Rachal, K.C. , Sandage, S.J. , Worthington, E.L. , Jr., Brown, S.W ., & Hight, T.L.(1998).Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships.II: Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586-1603.

See the list of books on Forgiveness

 Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 



Reference for clinicians on understanding  and writing about assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 





 

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

  

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Leadership Restoration Scales

Measures of  Forgiveness and Restoration



Scale names: Leadership Restoration Scales

           Leadership Restoration Scale: Forgive and Restore (LRSF)

           Leadership Restoration Scale: Restoration (LRSR)

 Scales overview

Two short scales measure two dimensions of congregants views on restoring a religious leader to ministry. One scale includes forgiveness (LRSF) and a second scale focuses exclusively on degrees of restoration without mentioning forgiveness (LRSR).

Author(s)

Sutton and Jordan (2013).

Items

The LRSF is a 3-item scale of forgiveness and restoration

The LRSR is a 6-item scale of restoration

Response Type

A 7-point rating scale with anchors 1 = Very Strongly Agree and 7 = Very Strongly Disagree. See example below.

Sample items

The full scales can be found in Sutton and Jordan (2013) or can be downloaded here- see availability below.

LRSF Scale

2. The victim or victims offended by the person need to forgive the person before the person can be restored to any public ministry position.

Very Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Mostly Agree

Somewhat Agree

Somewhat Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Very Strongly Disagree

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

 

LRSR Scale

3. It is unlikely that this person could return to the same or similar public ministry position.

Very Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Mostly Agree

Somewhat Agree

Somewhat Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Very Strongly Disagree

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

 

Descriptive Statistics

These data are based on a sample of 169 people who reported knowing a member of the clergy who committed an offense (Sutton & Jordan, 2013). Skew and kurtosis were within normal limits for both measures.

LRSF M = 9.85, SD = 4.79

LRSR M = 17.96, SD = 6.61

Validity

The two LRS scales measure different responses to restoring a leader. Although they are not significantly related to each other (p = .40) they are differently related to other measures of forgiveness and spirituality. A statistically significant relationship was defined as p < .05.

LRSF was significantly positively correlated with TRIM-A (Transgression Related Interpersonal Motivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

LRSF was significantly negatively correlated with the following scales

CSRI 1 (Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory)

IER-EP (Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity Scale Revised-Extrinsic Personal Subscale; Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989)

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore) was significantly positively correlated with the following scales

TRIM-A (Transgression Related InterpersonalMotivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

CRSI Level I offenses: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory

CRSI Level 2 offenses: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore) was significantly negatively correlated with the SCBCS (Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale, Hwang et al., 2008)

Availability

See Appendix B of Sutton and Jordan (2013) or

Click Here to Download Scales

 Permissions -- if identified

The scales may be used in research and teaching at no charge. Please cite Sutton & Jordan (2013). 

The scales may be modified to fit specific situations but kindly cite the Sutton & Jordan (2013) reference.

For use in books or any commercial use, contact Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD at suttong@evangel.edu

 Link to the related CSRI scales

 References

Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. R., O'Connor, L. E., Parrott, L., & Wade, N. G. (2005). Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. Journal of Personality, 73, 183–225. doi:10.1111/j.14676494.2004.00308.x.

Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-Revised and single item scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 348–354. doi:10.2307/1386745.

Hwang, J., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: an abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr's compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421–428. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0117-2.

McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E., Brown, S., & Hight, T. L. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586–1603. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1586.

Sutton, G. W. (2016). A House Divided: Sexuality, morality, and Christian cultures. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. ISBN: 9781498224888 AMAZON

Sutton, G. W. & Jordan, K. (2013). Evaluating attitudes toward clergy restoration: The psychometric properties of two scales. Pastoral Psychology. doi 10.1007/s11089-013-0527-7 Published online 16 March 2013.  [Citation for these scales.]

Sutton, G. W., McLeland, K. C., Weaks, K. Cogswell, P. E., & Miphouvieng, R. N. (2007). Does gender matter? An exploration of gender, spirituality, forgiveness and restoration following pastor transgressions. Pastoral Psychology. 55, 645-663. doi 10.1007/ s11089-007-0072-3  ResearchGate Link        Academia Link

Sutton, G.W., & Thomas, E. K. (2005). Can derailed pastors be restored? Effects of offense and age on restoration. Pastoral Psychology, 53, 583-599.              Academia Link    Research Gate Link

Thomas, E. K., White, K., & Sutton, G.W. (2008). Religious leadership failure: Apology, responsibility-taking, gender, forgiveness, and restoration. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27, 16-29.      Academia Link    Research Gate Link

 Resource for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 

 




Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

  


 









Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 Photo note: Bing images- Free to share and use


Thursday, May 20, 2021

Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory (CSRI)

 


Scale name: Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory (CSRI)

Scale overview

The Clergy Situational Restoration Inventory evaluates participants’ attitudes toward restoration based on participant responses to 10 transgression scenarios in which a pastor violated a common sociomoral expectation (Sutton et al. 2007; Sutton & Thomas 2004). The scale uses descriptive Likert-type ratings that range from one (no restoration to ministry) to seven (full restoration to the position previously held). The transgression scenarios include problems of substance abuse, infidelity, and embezzlement. Because of the range of common yet hypothetical scenarios, the developers expected the CSRI to assess a disposition to restore.

Author(s)

Sutton and Jordan (2013) with previous versions used in Sutton et al. (2007), Sutton & Thomas (2004, 2005).

Items

 10- items, which are short scenarios

Response Type

A 7-point rating scale with anchors 1 = No Restoration and 7 = Full restoration.

Subscales

Principal components analyses revealed two subscales identified as Level 1 and Level 2 where levels appear to represent perceived offense severity and level 2 items are more severe than level 1.

Level 2 consists of 4 of the 10 items: 3,6,8, and 10. All other items are Level 1.

Sample items

The full scale can be found in Sutton and Jordan (2013) or can be downloaded here- see availability below.

2. Pastor, age 43, admits to having a problem with alcohol during the past six months. Alcohol abuse has accounted for missed appointments and “sick days.” No prior abuse history is evident. Appears willing to participate in treatment. Spouse is supportive.

6. Pastor, age 38, admits to adultery lasting a year. Appears to be sincerely apologetic and willing to enter treatment. Spouse appears quite devastated but may consider reconciliation.

 Reliability

In a sample of 210, coefficient alpha values were .86 for Level 1 and .79 for level 2. The correlation between the two subscales = .64 in a sample of participants who actually knew a clergy offender (n = 169). See Sutton and Jordan (2013).

 Validity

CSRI Level 1 was significantly positively correlated with the following scales

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore)

LRSF (Leadership Restoration Scale-Forgive and Restore)

TFS (Trait Forgiveness Scale; Berry et al., 2005)

SCBS (Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale; Hwang et al., 2008))

CSRI Level 1 was significantly negatively correlated with the following scales

TRIM-A (Transgression Related InterpersonalMotivations- Avoidance; McCullough et al., 1998)

IER-EP (Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity Scale Revised-Extrinsic Personal Subscale; Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989)

CSRI Level 2 was significantly positively correlated with the following scales

LRSR (Leadership Restoration Scale-Restore)

IER-ES (Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity Scale Revised-Extrinsic Social Subscale)

 

CSRI Level 2 was significantly negatively correlated with the following scale

TRIM-A

Availability

See Appendix A of Sutton and Jordan (2013) or

Click Here to Download Scale

 

Permissions -- if identified

This scale may be used in research and teaching at no charge. Please cite Sutton & Jordan (2013). For use in books or any commercial use, contact Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD at suttong@evangel.edu

Reference(s)

Berry, J. W., Worthington, E. R., O'Connor, L. E., Parrott, L., & Wade, N. G. (2005). Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits. Journal of Personality, 73, 183–225. doi:10.1111/j.14676494.2004.00308.x.

Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-Revised and singleitem scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 348–354. doi:10.2307/1386745.

Hwang, J., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: an abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr's compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421–428. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0117-2.

McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E., Brown, S., & Hight, T. L. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586–1603. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1586.

Sutton, G. W. (2016). A House Divided: Sexuality, morality, and Christian cultures. Eugene, OR: Pickwick. ISBN: 9781498224888 AMAZON

Sutton, G. W. & Jordan, K. (2013). Evaluating attitudes toward clergy restoration: The psychometric properties of two scales. Pastoral Psychology, 62, 859-871. doi 10.1007/s11089-013-0527-7     [Reference for the CSRI in this post]

Sutton, G. W., McLeland, K. C., Weaks, K. Cogswell, P. E., & Miphouvieng, R. N. (2007). Does gender matter? An exploration of gender, spirituality, forgiveness and restoration following pastor transgressions. Pastoral Psychology. 55, 645-663. doi 10.1007/ s11089-007-0072-3

Sutton, G.W., & Thomas, E. K. (2005). Can derailed pastors be restored? Effects of offense and age on restoration. Pastoral Psychology, 53, 583-599.              Academia Link    Research Gate Link

Thomas, E. K., White, K., & Sutton, G.W. (2008). Religious leadership failure: Apology, responsibility-taking, gender, forgiveness, and restoration. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27, 16-29.      Academia Link    Research Gate Link

 

Resource for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

 


 

 Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

  

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

   PINTEREST  www.pinterest.com/GeoffWSutton

 

Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

  ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 

 Photo credit- Bing free to share and use

Friday, May 7, 2021

Continuous variables in behavioral research

 

Continuous variable. A variable having a wide range of numerical values, such as intelligence, achievement, and personality variables.

Example: Scores on a Big Five test of personality are often reported as T-Scores for each of the five scales. Most people obtain scores in the range of 40 to 60 but it is possible to obtain lower and higher scores. The point of the example is that the scores are continuous and cover a wide range. 

Researchers can group people based on their scores using groups labels like "high" and "low" perhaps by deciding that the median would be the score to separate high and low scores. Changing the continuous variable results in the formation of a grouping variable or categorical variable.

Example 2: Age is a continuous variable beginning at birth and continuing to death. Researchers can group people by age and create a grouping or categorical value.

Learn More about variables in Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE



Please check out my website   www.suttong.com

   and see my books on   AMAZON       or  GOOGLE STORE

Also, consider connecting with me on    FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton    

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You can read many published articles at no charge:

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton     ResearchGate   Geoffrey W Sutton 


variance and standard deviation

Variance is a measure of the dispersion of values in a distribution of values.  In psychology and behavioral science statistics, the varianc...