Showing posts with label demons and distress. Show all posts
Showing posts with label demons and distress. Show all posts

Wednesday, September 7, 2022

Attitudes and Experiences of Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

 


Scale name: Attitudes and Experiences of Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

Scale overview: Lloyd and Waller (2020) used nine items to assess the relationship of spiritual etiology to mental distress in a British sample (n = 446).

 

Response Type and items:

The 9-questions were organized into three groups. Respondents were presented with different response options depending on the question.

1. Spiritualization of Mental Distress 1-4

Example: Has your current or previous church or related teaching taught that mental distress was the result of demons, spirits or generational curses? Response options were yes, no, or unsure.

2. Views on secular/psychological treatments 5 – 7.

Example: 5. Do you believe psychological treatments, such as therapy, can be successful in treating mental distress? Response options were yes, no, or unsure. Questions 6-7 asked about church support.

3. Interaction with the Church community 8-9

Example: Overall, how do you feel about your church’s attitude towards mental distress? This was rated on a 5-point scale of very positive to very negative. The next items asked, “How has your interaction with the church, in relation to your mental health, affected your faith?” Response options were Strengthened it, Not impacted it, or Weakened it.

The researchers also asked about the cause of mental distress. Respondents had five options. Examples include traumatic or negative life experiences and Other spiritual causes (generational curses, demonic, the occult, etc.)

Results

The researchers reported the percentage of responses endorsed in two tables and provided a summary in the text. In the discussion, they note differences with similar surveys in the United States

Availability:

The questions can be found in the article below. The 9-questions are in Table 1 along with the answers.

Reference for the scale

Christopher E. M. Lloyd & Robert M. Waller (2020): Demon? Disorder? Or none of the above? A survey of the attitudes and experiences of evangelical Christians with mental distress, Mental Health, Religion & Culture, DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2019.1675148

Pdf found on Researchgate 7 September 2022

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 NOTICE:

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Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale Julie Exline et al.

The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS) assesses six domains of potential struggles, which people may experience. The RSS is a 26-item measure with strong psychometric support.




For a list of the items and more details, see the reference below (Exline, Pargament, Grubbs, & Yali, 2014).

Based on Exline et al. (2014) and a general reading of the topic, I define religious/ spiritual (RS) struggles as experiences of personal concern linked to RS beliefs, practices, values, or experiences, which negatively affect thinking, feelings, or behavior, relationships, or health.


The Six Domains of Spiritual Struggles

Following is a quote from page 208 of the 2014 article, which describes the six domains. I have added bold text to help readers identify each domain. Note, r/s is a common abbreviation for religious/spiritual.
The measure assesses six domains of r/s struggle: divine (negative emotion centered on beliefs about God or a perceived relationship with God), demonic (concern that the devil or evil spirits are attacking an individual or causing negative events), interpersonal (concern about negative experiences with religious people or institutions; interpersonal conflict around religious issues), moral (wrestling with attempts to follow moral principles; worry or guilt about perceived offenses by the self), doubt (feeling troubled by doubts or questions about one’s r/s beliefs), and ultimate meaning (concern about not perceiving deep meaning in one’s life).
The Brief RCOPE also contains items related to spiritual struggles but is more focused on coping than the RSS  I reviewed here. Also note, in the article about the RSS (Exline et al., 2014), the authors view negative religious coping as another way of framing RS struggles.

Scale items

See the references for a complete list of the items and the domains. See the quote above for a description of the items within each of the six domains.

Each item is rated on a 5-point scale where 1 = not at all/does not apply and 5 = a great deal. Researchers average the item scores to obtain a total score and subscale scores.

Spiritual Struggles and Mental Health

All of the RSS subscales predicted mental health criteria.*

The best predictors of emotional distress related to religious and spiritual struggles were the Ultimate Meaning and Divine subscales of the RSS.

The RSS Interpersonal and Moral subscales predicted loneliness

The functioning of the RSS Doubt subscale suggested the possibility that in some cases doubt might not link to distress.

Mental health variables were: Depression, Anxiety, State Anger, Life satisfaction, Loneliness, and Presence of life meaning

Reliability and Validity
The 2014 publication includes extensive details of the RSS development, including data supporting adequate reliability and validity values and construct validity. Alpha values ranged from .85 to .93 across the six subscales in the development study of 1141 undergraduates. 

For a study of the relationship between this RSS measure and the RCOPE scale, see Wilt et al. (2022).


Creating a Survey

The RSSS and other measures may be added to surveys along with other items when researchers follow the permission instructions. Learn more about Creating Surveys. Creating Surveys is  an easy to read and recommended text and resource required by professors at graduate and undergraduate universities.

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Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2020, January 22).  Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale Julie Exline et al. Assessment, Statistics, and Research. Retrieved from  https://statistics.suttong.com/2020/01/religious-and-spiritual-struggles-scale.html

Related Posts






Resource Link- list of tests on this blog:  A – Z Test Index


References

Exline, Julie J., Pargament, Kenneth I., Grubbs, Joshua B., & Yali, Ann Marie. (2014). The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 208-222. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036465

Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., Grubbs, J. B., & Yali, A. M. (2014). Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t36191-000

Wilt, J. A., Exline, J. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2022). Coping with religious and spiritual struggles: Religious and secular techniques. Spirituality in Clinical Practice. https://doi.org/10.1037/scp0000289.supp (Supplemental)

The RSS scale contains items that may be useful to clinicians considering religious and spiritual concerns raised by counseling clients.

Learn more about counseling statistics inApplied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE















See how to include spirituality and other items in survey research in Creating Surveys on AMAZON    or    GOOGLE










A related book


        by Pargament and Exline




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