Showing posts with label Personality. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Personality. Show all posts

Wednesday, February 8, 2023

Values in Action VIA Character Strengths

 



Assessment name:  

     Values in Action – Inventory of Strengths – Revised (VIA-IS-R)

Scale overview: The Values in Action – Inventory of Strengths – Revised (VIA-IS-R) is a 192-item self-report inventory of 24 character strengths associated with one of 6 virtues.

The VIA-IS-R is a revision of the earlier VIA based on the theory developed by Peterson and Seligman (2004). As a measure that increases self-awareness using questions to identify thinking, feeling, and behavior, the VIA measures the central core Self of the SCOPES model along with common psychological functioning of Cognition, Emotion, and Observable behavior patterns albeit, the instrument relies on self-report.

Authors: Martin Seligman and Chris Peterson (2004)

Robert McGrath wrote the technical manual for the revised edition (2019).

 

Response Type: Items are rated on a 7-point scale of agreement from Very Strongly Disagree to Very Strongly Agree.

Scales and items

There are 24 character strengths. The strengths are linked to 6 virtues.

 

Psychometric properties

The technical report provides reliability values based on large scale samples. The values range above .76. The report also includes validity data. Many other analyses are available in the research literature. Readers should be aware of which version has been used because there is the revised version along with shorter versions.

 

Availability:

The VIA-IS-R is available online. The measure is free and available to the public and researchers (https://www.viacharacter.org/account/register ).

The VIA is available in 40 translations. There are shorter versions and versions for children and youth. See the VIA website for explanations of the different versions.

References for the scale

Hill, P.C., DiFonzo, N., Jones, C.E., Bell, J.S. (2023). Measurement at the Intersection of Positive Psychology and the Psychology of Religion/Spirituality. In: Davis, E.B., Worthington Jr., E.L., Schnitker, S.A. (eds) Handbook of Positive Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10274-5_7  [ On AMAZON ]

 McGrath, R. E. (2017). Technical report: The VIA Assessment Suite for Adults: Development and evaluation. Cincinnati, OH: VIA Institute on Character.

McGrath, R. E. (2019). Technical report: The VIA Assessment Suite for Adults: Development and initial evaluation (rev. ed.). Cincinnati, OH: VIA Institute on Character.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A classification and handbook. Washington DC: American Psychological Association

Other notes

Peter Hill and his colleagues (2023) have shown how VIA virtues and the associated character strengths may be associated with one or more of 200 measures of religiosity and spirituality.

Reference for using scales in research:

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

  

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Post Author

 

Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:     www.suttong.com

  

Books available on   AMAZON       and the   GOOGLE STORE

 

Connections

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

   TWITTER  @Geoff.W.Sutton

 

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Read many published articles and book samples on:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

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Wednesday, January 25, 2023

Projective Testing

 



In psychological assessment using projective tests, clinicians provide patients with ambiguous words, sentences, or images and look for themes in their response patterns that indicate the person's mood, anxieties, needs, motives, attitudes, and conflicts about which the person may have varied degrees of awareness.

In order to improve the reliability of scoring, some researchers developed scoring systems, which allowed for the examination of consistency among different clinicians scoring the same record and validity studies linking test results to clinical diagnoses or other measures less reliant on clinical judgment. These scoring systems have been challenged in terms of reliability and validity of the scores.

Classic psychological tests based on the projective hypothesis include the Rorschach Inkblot test, the Thematic Apperception Test, House-Tree-Person Test, and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. There are many other tests along these lines.


Following are examples of a few classic projective tests.

The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a standard series of ten cards presented to patients one at a time. Some cards are greyscale and some include color. The patient's responses are recorded and scored based on a scoring system. The test was developed by Hermann Rorschach, a Swiss psychiatrist, in 1921. A popular scoring system was developed by American psychologist, John Exner in 1974. Exner's system is also known as the Rorschach Comprehensive System. Researchers have criticized the reliability and validity of Exner's system. Meyer et al. (2002) provided evidence of good interrater reliability values. For a critique, see Mihura et al. (2013, 2018).

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a standard set of greyscale images. The TAT was developed by Henry Murray in consultation with Christiana D. Morgan in the 1930s to assist in the assessment of patient's needs according to Murray's Need Theory. Examples of needs include achievement, dominance, and autonomy. Patients are asked to tell a story in response to the picture on the card. The responses are scored according to a system. The reliability and validity of the scores have been criticized (e.g., see Kasky-Hern├índez, 2017). 

The Draw- A-Man Test was developed by Florence Goodenough in 1926 as a way to assess children's intelligence.

The House-Tree-Person Test (HTP) includes the drawing adds the drawing of a house and a tree and does not specify the gender of the person as in the Draw A Man test. Scoring may include quantitative and qualitative methods to assess intelligence, cognitions, emotions, and attitudes based upon features within the drawings and the patient's response to a standard set of questions. Problems of reliability and validity are an issue. See for example Lin et al. (2022).

References

Kasky-Hernández, L. (2017). Thematic Apperception Test. In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Shackelford, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_955-1

Lin, Y., Zhang, N., Qu, Y., Li, T., Liu, J., & Song, Y. (2022). The House-Tree-Person test is not valid for the prediction of mental health: An empirical study using deep neural networks. Acta psychologica230, 103734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103734

Meyer, G. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Baxter, D., Exner, J. E., Jr, Fowler, J. C., Piers, C. C., & Resnick, J. (2002). An examination of interrater reliability for scoring the Rorschach Comprehensive System in eight data sets. Journal of personality assessment78(2), 219–274. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7802_03

Mihura, J.L., Meyer, G.J., Dumitrascu, N., & Bombel, G. (2013). The validity of 
individual Rorschach variables: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the 
comprehensive system. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 548-605. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029406

Mihura, J.L., Bombel, G., Dumitrascu, N., Roy, M., & Meadows, E. A.
(2018). Why we need a formal systematic approach to validating psychological 
tests: The case of the Rorschach Comprehensive System, Journal of Personality
 Assessment
, 101, 374-392. DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2018.1458315


Geoffrey W. Sutton, PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology. He retired from a clinical practice and was credentialed in clinical neuropsychology and psychopharmacology. His website is  www.suttong.com

 

See Geoffrey Sutton’s books on   AMAZON       or  GOOGLE STORE

Follow on    FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton    

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Dr. Sutton’s posts are for educational purposes only. See a licensed mental health provider for diagnoses, treatment, and consultation.

Friday, January 6, 2023

Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales-Q-Sort

 


Assessment name:  Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales-Q-Sort

Scale overview: The Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales-Q-Sort version (DMRS-Q) is a measure of defensemechanisms designed for clinical use. The measure assesses nonpsychotic defenses according to a seven level hierarchy of adaptiveness. Clinicians can enter data into an online resource which will score and report the results.

 Read more about defense mechanisms in psychology.


Authors: Di Giuseppe and Perry

Scale items: There are five items for each of 30 defense mechanisms for a total of 150 items. The items linked to the 30 defense mechanisms and levels are listed and described in Di Giuseppe, M., & Perry, J. C. (2021).

 

Psychometric data:

Interrater reliability values and criterion validity were reported in Di Giuseppe, M., & Perry, J. C. (2021).

 

Availability:

See the DMRS-Q website at https://www.dmrs-q.com/. At the time of this writing, the web app was free to use. The web page includes a tutorial and additional information about the measures.

 Read more about the 7 Level Hierarchy of Defense Mechanisms.

Reference for the scale

Di Giuseppe, M., & Perry, J. C. (2021). The Hierarchy of Defense Mechanisms: Assessing Defensive Functioning With the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales Q-Sort. Frontiers in psychology12, 718440. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.718440

 

Di Giuseppe, M., Perry, J. C., Petraglia, J., Janzen, J., & Lingiardi, V.(2014). Development of a Q-Sort version of the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales (DMRS-Q) for clinical use. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 452–465. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22089

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

 

 

Related measure

Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales-Self-Report-30 (DMRS-SR-30)

 

NOTICE:

The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

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Friday, February 4, 2022

Enneagram Personality Test RHETI

 


Scale name: Enneagram [Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator [RHETI®]

Scale overview: There is more than one version of the Enneagram, which purports to measure how an individual’s personality fits with nine types. The version referred to in this post is the RHETI®—see above for the full name.

A study by Newgent et al. (2004) used the 144-item forced choice format.

Authors: Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson

Response Type: Forced-choice format

Subscales: There are nine types referred to by number and a label:

1 Reformer- principled, idealistic

2 Helper- caring, interpersonal

3 Achiever- adaptable, success-oriented

4. Individualist- romantic, introspective

5 Investigator- intense, cerebral

6 Loyalist- committed, security-oriented

7 Enthusiast- busy, productive

8 Challenger- powerful, dominating

9 Peacemaker- easy-going, self-effacing

More detailed descriptions can be found at The Enneagram Institute

Sample item: (Newgent, et al., 2004, p. 228)

Item I contains the following two responses: "I've been romantic and imaginative" and "I’ve been pragmatic and down to earth." The first response is associated with the Individualist and the second response is associated with the Loyalist

Reliability: In their small study, Newgent et al. (2004) reported a range of alpha values from .56 (Achiever, Investigator) to .82 (Helper) six scales were at or above alpha .70.

 

Validity: Newgent et al. (2004) administered a version of the Big Five (NEO PI-R). They calculated correlations and performed a canonical variate analysis. They reported that all of the RHETI types were significantly correlated with at least one of the five NEO PI-R factors. See Table 1 for the details.

Notes

Hook et al. (2021) published a review of the literature on the Enneagram. They found mixed evidence regarding reliability and validity. Factor analyses have found less than nine factors.

Several have found the Enneagram useful in spiritual growth. For example, see (Kam, 2018; Singletary, 2020).

In the SCOPES model, the Enneagram fits in the O = Observable behavior pattern of functioning.

Availability

Link to the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator version 2.5

The fee was $12 on the date of this blogpost

A shorter, 36-item version is free online as of the date of this blogpost

   Link to Open Enneagram of Personality Scales

 Related Post

Big Five Personality Test

HEXACO Personality Test

SCOPES model of human functioning

References

Hook, J. N., Hall, T. W., Davis, D. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., & Conner, M. (2021). The Enneagram: A systematic review of the literature and directions for future research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 865–883. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23097

Kam, C. (2018). Integrating divine attachment theory and the Enneagram to help clients of abuse heal in their images of self, others, and God. Pastoral Psychology, 67(4), 341–356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11089-018-0817-1

Newgent, R. A., Parr, P. E., Newman, I., & Higgins, K.K. (2004) The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of reliability and validity. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 36, 226-237.

Singletary, J. (2020). Head, heart, and hand: Understanding Enneagram centers for leadership development. Social Work & Christianity, 47(4), 3–18. https://doi.org/10.34043/swc.v47i3.126

 

Reference for using scales in research:

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AMAZON

 

 

 

Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Buy Applied Statistics for Counselors

 

GOOGLE BOOKS

 

AMAZON

 


 

Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Enneagram books on GOOGLE

Enneagram books by Riso and Hudson AMAZON

 

Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

  AMAZON      

 

  GOOGLE STORE

 

FOLLOW me on

   FACEBOOK   Geoff W. Sutton  

  

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Read published articles:

 

  Academia   Geoff W Sutton   

 

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 Photo credit: Enneagram "wheel" from Microsoft Bing "Free to share and use."

 

 

Tuesday, January 12, 2021

Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13


The Narcissistic Personality Inventory - 13 (NPI-13) was developed by Gentile et al. (2013). It is a shortened version of the 40-item NPI.

The authors describe trait narcissism as a trait on a continuum with features of "a grandiose sense of self, feelings of entitlement, and a dominant and antagonistic interpersonal style (p. 1120)."


Scale and subscales

The NPI-13 has three subscales (Cronbach alpha values in parentheses):

Leadership/authority (.66)

Grandiose Exhibitionism (.65)

Entitlement/ exploitativeness (.51)

Total Scale alpha = .73.

Psychometric Properties

In general, the three NPI scales were significantly positively correlated with grandiose scales from the PNI and NGS, psychological entitlement, and both self-report and interview-based symptom of NPD. All three were also positively related to self-esteem scores," (Gentile et al., 2013, p. 1124).

The authors also found positive correlations between the NPI scales and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders of paranoid, antisocial, and histrionic.

See Gentile et al. (2013) below for details of the two studies and how the NPI-13 and other versions performed.

Sample items

I like having authority over other people.

I have a strong will to power.

Read more about Narcissistic  Personality Disorder

 and the other two components of the "Toxic Triad."

Permission to use

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.

Availability

The 13 test items are listed in the PsycTESTS entry listed below.

Gentile, B., Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Reidy, D. E., Zeichner, A., & Campbell, W. K. (2013). Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13. PsycTESTS. https://doi.org/10.1037/t28884-000 

SCOPES domain = O/ Observable behavior patterns/personality

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2021, January 12). Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13. Assessment, Statistics, and Research. https://statistics.suttong.com/2021/01/narcissistic-personality-inventory-13.html


Reference

Gentile, Brittany, Miller, Joshua D., Hoffman, Brian J., Reidy, Dennis E., Zeichner, Amos, & Campbell, W. Keith. (2013). A test of two brief measures of grandiose narcissism: The Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13 and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1120-1136. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033192 

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Learn more about Narcissism at

   Psychology's Toxic Triad (Narcissism, Psychopathy, Machiavellianism)

Find more tests in the Test Index to this blog.


Links to Connections

Checkout My Website   www.suttong.com

  

See my Books

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Tuesday, January 5, 2021

HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R)

 


The HEXACO is a six-domain measure of personality available in 60-item and 100-item versions. The scale has been translated into many languages. These scales are available on the HEXACO website.

The letters in HEXACO represent the names of the six domains. The domains are referred to as scales and are listed below. I will add a few descriptive words for each scale and provide the link below where you can obtain more details.

In addition to the scales for the six domains, each domain has subscales referred to as facet-level scales. I have simply used the word subscales for these facets.

 HEXACO authors: Kibeom Lee and Michael C. Ashton

**********

Honesty-Humility: temptation to break or follow rules, motivations for personal gain, self-importance.

Subscales: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty

Emotionality: fear, worry, anxiety, emotional support

Subscales: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality

eXtraversion: interest/ comfort in social interactions; confidence in social settings

Subscales: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness

Agreeableness (versus anger): willingness to compromise, cooperate; ability to manage temper; capacity for forgiveness

Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience

Conscientiousness: concern for organization; disciplined pursuit of goals, concern for accuracy and perfection

Subscales: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence

Openness to Experience: inquisitive, creative, interested in new ideas

Subscales: Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality

**********

Interstitial Scales

The authors added two scales that measure specific trait patterns

Altruism versus Antagonism

Negative Self-Evaluation

Psychometric properties

Many articles present the factor structure and information related to reliability and validity. See the references below for psychometric properties.

Additional notes

Given the “H” (honesty-humility) domain, it is not surprising to learn of a moderate relationship with spirituality (Aghababaei et al., 2014). Ferrari and his team (2017) explored relationships between the 60-item HEXACO and measures of spirituality (Religious Commitment Inventory(RCI), Worthington et al., 2003; Spiritual Transcendence Inventory (TCI), Piedmont, 1999) in a Catholic sample of deacons and candidates for deacon. Honesty-humility and Extraversion significantly predicted both the Intrapersonal and the Interpersonal subscales of the RCI. HEXACO scales significantly predicted subscales of the TCI for the candidate sample. Agreeableness significantly predicted the belief/prayer subscale and extraversion and openness to experience significantly predicted connectedness. More HEXACO scales were predictive for the deacon sample. Four scales predicted intrapersonal and interpersonal subscales of the RCI: honesty-humility, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Agreeableness was only predictive of the Intrapersonal subscale. Four HEXACO scales predicted both belief/prayer and belief/connectedness subscales of the TCI: Honesty-humility, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Agreeableness predicted belief/prayer and emotionality predicted belief/connectedness.


Where to find the HEXACO

You can take the HEXACO online CLICK HERE

You can get copies in different languages CLICK HERE

SCOPES domain = O / Observable behavior patterns/personality

To find other tests and measures CLICK HERE


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References

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150-166.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO-60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 340-345.

Ferrari, J. R., Reed, J., & Guerrero, M. (2017). Personality as predictor of religious commitment and spiritual beliefs: Comparing Catholic deacons and men in formation. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 19(1), 20–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/19349637.2016.1193405

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages. Journal of Personality, 76, 1001-1053.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018).  Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100.  Assessment25, 543-556.


Books

Advances in HEXACO Personality Research


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Articles:

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Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

  Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique that is widely used in psychology and related fields to examine the relatio...