Showing posts with label Personality. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Personality. Show all posts

Friday, February 4, 2022

Enneagram Personality Test RHETI


Scale name: Enneagram [Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI)]

Scale overview: There is more than one version of the Enneagram, which purport to measure how an individual’s personality fits with nine types. The version referred to in this post is the RHETI—see above for the full name.

A study by Newgent et al. (2004) used the 144-item forced choice format.

Authors: Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson

Response Type: Forced-choice format

Subscales: There are nine types referred to by number and a label:

1 Reformer- principled, idealistic

2 Helper- caring, interpersonal

3 Achiever- adaptable, success-oriented

4. Individualist- romantic, introspective

5 Investigator- intense, cerebral

6 Loyalist- committed, security-oriented

7 Enthusiast- busy, productive

8 Challenger- powerful, dominating

9 Peacemaker- easy-going, self-effacing

More detailed descriptions can be found at The Enneagram Institute

Sample item: (Newgent, et al., 2004, p. 228)

Item I contains the following two responses: "I've been romantic and imaginative" and "I’ve been pragmatic and down to earth." The first response is associated with the Individualist and the second response is associated with the Loyalist

Reliability: In their small study, Newgent et al. (2004) reported a range of alpha values from .56 (Achiever, Investigator) to .82 (Helper) six scales were at or above alpha .70.


Validity: Newgent et al. (2004) administered a version of the Big Five (NEO PI-R). They calculated correlations and performed a canonical variate analysis. They reported that all of the RHETI types were significantly correlated with at least one of the five NEO PI-R factors. See Table 1 for the details.


Hook et al. (2021) published a review of the literature on the Enneagram. They found mixed evidence regarding reliability and validity. Factor analyses have found less than nine factors.

Several have found the Enneagram useful in spiritual growth. For example, see (Kam, 2018; Singletary, 2020).

In the SCOPES model, the Enneagram fits in the O = Observable behavior pattern of functioning.


Link to the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator version 2.5

The fee was $12 on the date of this blogpost

A shorter, 36-item version is free online as of the date of this blogpost

   Link to Open Enneagram of Personality Scales

 Related Post

Big Five Personality Test

HEXACO Personality Test

SCOPES model of human functioning


Hook, J. N., Hall, T. W., Davis, D. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., & Conner, M. (2021). The Enneagram: A systematic review of the literature and directions for future research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 865–883.

Kam, C. (2018). Integrating divine attachment theory and the Enneagram to help clients of abuse heal in their images of self, others, and God. Pastoral Psychology, 67(4), 341–356.

Newgent, R. A., Parr, P. E., Newman, I., & Higgins, K.K. (2004) The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of reliability and validity. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 36, 226-237.

Singletary, J. (2020). Head, heart, and hand: Understanding Enneagram centers for leadership development. Social Work & Christianity, 47(4), 3–18.


Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Enneagram books on GOOGLE

Enneagram books by Riso and Hudson AMAZON


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 Photo credit: Enneagram "wheel" from Microsoft Bing "Free to share and use."



Tuesday, January 12, 2021

Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory - 13 (NPI-13) was developed by Gentile et al. (2013). It is a shortened version of the 40-item NPI.

The authors describe trait narcissism as a trait on a continuum with features of "a grandiose sense of self, feelings of entitlement, and a dominant and antagonistic interpersonal style (p. 1120)."

Scale and subscales

The NPI-13 has three subscales (alpha values in parentheses):

Leadership/authority (.66)

Grandiose Exhibitionism (.65)

Entitlement/ exploitativeness (.51)

Total Scale alpha = .73.

Psychometric Properties

In general, the three NPI scales were significantly positively correlated with grandiose scales from the PNI and NGS, psychological entitlement, and both self-report and interview-based symptom of NPD. All three were also positively related to self-esteem scores," (Gentile et al., 2013, p. 1124).

The authors also found positive correlations between the NPI scales and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders of paranoid, antisocial, and histrionic.

See Gentile et al. (2013) below for details of the two studies and how the NPI-13 and other versions performed.

Sample items

I like having authority over other people.

I have a strong will to power.

Permission to use

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.


The 13 test items are listed in the PsycTESTS entry listed below.

Gentile, B., Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Reidy, D. E., Zeichner, A., & Campbell, W. K. (2013). Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13. PsycTESTS. 

SCOPES domain = O/ Observable behavior patterns/personality

Cite this post

Sutton, G. W. (2021, January 12). Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13. Assessment, Statistics, and Research.


Gentile, Brittany, Miller, Joshua D., Hoffman, Brian J., Reidy, Dennis E., Zeichner, Amos, & Campbell, W. Keith. (2013). A test of two brief measures of grandiose narcissism: The Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13 and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1120-1136. doi: 

For help with tests and statistics in counseling, see Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

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Learn more about Narcissism at

   Psychology's Toxic Triad (Narcissism, Psychopathy, Machiavellianism)

Find more tests in the Test Index to this blog.

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Tuesday, January 5, 2021

HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R)


The HEXACO is a six-domain measure of personality available in 60-item and 100-item versions. The scale has been translated into many languages. These scales are available on the HEXACO website.

The letters in HEXACO represent the names of the six domains. The domains are referred to as scales and are listed below. I will add a few descriptive words for each scale and provide the link below where you can obtain more details.

In addition to the scales for the six domains, each domain has subscales referred to as facet-level scales. I have simply used the word subscales for these facets.

 HEXACO authors: Kibeom Lee and Michael C. Ashton


Honesty-Humility: temptation to break or follow rules, motivations for personal gain, self-importance.

Subscales: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty

Emotionality: fear, worry, anxiety, emotional support

Subscales: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality

eXtraversion: interest/ comfort in social interactions; confidence in social settings

Subscales: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness

Agreeableness (versus anger): willingness to compromise, cooperate; ability to manage temper; capacity for forgiveness

Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience

Conscientiousness: concern for organization; disciplined pursuit of goals, concern for accuracy and perfection

Subscales: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence

Openness to Experience: inquisitive, creative, interested in new ideas

Subscales: Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality


Interstitial Scales

The authors added two scales that measure specific trait patterns

Altruism versus Antagonism

Negative Self-Evaluation

Psychometric properties

Many articles present the factor structure and information related to reliability and validity. See the references below for psychometric properties.

Where to find the HEXACO

You can take the HEXACO online CLICK HERE

You can get copies in different languages CLICK HERE

SCOPES domain = O / Observable behavior patterns/personality

To find other tests and measures CLICK HERE

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Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150-166.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO-60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 340-345.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages. Journal of Personality, 76, 1001-1053.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018).  Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100.  Assessment25, 543-556.


Advances in HEXACO Personality Research

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Saturday, December 12, 2020

Dispositional Contempt Scale


The Dispositional Contempt Scale (DCS) developed by Schriber et al. (2017) included 10-items measuring contempt on a 5-point rating scale.


The authors provided the following instructions on the downloaded form.

Below are a series of statements that may or may not relate to you. Please read each statement carefully, considering each one by one, and indicate the extent to which each describes you by using the response options. There are no right or wrong answers. Please answer honestly, as we are interested in how you actually think, feel, and behave.


1. I tend to disregard people who fall short of my standards.

2. I often lose respect for others.

3. Feeling disdain for others comes naturally to me.

4. I tend to accept people regardless of their flaws.

5. I would never try to make someone feel worthless.

6. I often feel like others are wasting my time.

7. I hardly ever think others are inferior to me.

8. All in all, I am repelled by others' faults.

9. Others tend to give me reasons to look down on them.

10. I often feel contempt for others.

Read more at The Psychology of Contempt


The authors state that the scale scores is the total score for the ten items. Items 4,5, and 7 are reverse scored.


The higher the score, the higher the level of contempt as a disposition or personality trait.


After developing the scale, their third sample revealed an average item mean of 2.48, SD  of .88 and alpha of .89. The DSC was significantly correlated with shame (Other as Shamer Scale, Goss et al., 1994) r = .85. Additional studies revealed DCS means in the range of 2.34 to 2.41 with SDs ranged from .70 to .92. The alpha values ranged from .88 to .90.

The authors compared the DCS to other measures and found significant relationships with aggression, hubristic price and dispositional envy. As you might expect, high DCS scores were significantly inversely related with the Big % trait of agreeableness. See Shriber et al. (2017) for details.




I downloaded the scale from Tilburg University.

 Learn more about assessment in Applied Statistics for Counselors

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


Goss, K., Gilbert, P., & Allan, S. (1994). An exploration of shame measures–

1: The Other as Shamer scale. Personality and Individual Differences,

17, 713–717.


Schriber, R. A., Chung, J. M., Sorensen, K. S., & Robins, R. W. (2017). Dispositional

contempt: A first look at the contemptuous person. Journal of Personality and Social

Psychology, 113, 280-309.

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Monday, September 28, 2020

Big Five Personality Scales

There are a few scales that measure the Big Five Personality Traits. One acronym is the word OCEAN. Each letter refers to the first letter of a Big Five personality trait.

Scientific studies by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae (1998) established a basis for the five factors known by the acronym OCEAN, which I refer to below.

See Big Five Personality Theory for more details and references.


O- Openness to experience includes curiosity, imagination, and creativity. People high in this trait appreciate complexity and originality and enjoy new experiences.


C- Conscientiousness describes behavior patterns of self-control and acting in socially acceptable ways. People high in conscientiousness are dependable, work within rules, plan and organize effectively, and have a strong degree of gratification. 


E- Extroversion  (aka extraversion) is often considered along with introversion. In a sense, the dimension identifies where a person finds their energy. Extroverts thrive in the presence of others while introverts need to withdraw from people to restore their souls in solitude. 


A- Agreeableness refers to patterns of interactions with others and contrasts with disagreeableness. People might describe those high in agreeableness as altruistic, trusting, modest, humble, patient, tactful, polite, kind, loyal, helpful, sensitive, amiable, cheerful, and considerate.


N- Neuroticism refers to emotional stability. Sensitive clinicians reframe this term as Emotional Stability. 

Link to a copy of the 44-item Inventory 

Link to a brief online version:

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Big Five Reference

 Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1998). Trait theories of personality. In D. F. Barone, M. Hersen, & V. B. Van Hasselt (Eds.), The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology: Advanced personality (p. 103–121). Plenum Press.

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 Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE

Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ)

  Assessment name: Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) Scale overview: The Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) is a 6-item self-repor...