Showing posts with label forgiveness. Show all posts
Showing posts with label forgiveness. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 11, 2022

Vengeance Scale - Measuring Revenge

 


Scale name: Vengeance Scale

Scale overview: 

The Vengeance Scale is a 20-item self-report inventory with 10 items reversed scored.

Authors: Noreen Stuckless & Richard Goranson

Response Type: 7-point Likert type.

1 = Disagree strongly

2 = Disagree

3 = disagree slightly

4 = Neither disagree or agree

5 = Agree slightly

6 = Agree

7 = Agree strongly

Subscales: None

Sample items

It’s not worth my time or effort to pay back someone who has wronged me. (Reverse score)

It’s important for me to get back at people who have hurt me.

 

Psychometric properties: Study 1: The scale mean for the 20 items was 67.28. Men (71.84) scored significantly higher than did women (65.29).

Reliability: Study 1 and Study 2 alphas = .92. In study 3, a test-retest correlation = .90.

Validity: The structure was examined by Factor Analysis. The researchers concluded that a single factor was the best fit.

In study 2, Vengeance scores were negatively correlated with empathy and positively correlated with trait anger

Availability: See pages 41-42 of the article for the 20 items.

Permissions -- if identified

Read more about revenge, vengeance and retaliatory aggression.

Reference

Stuckless, N. & Goranson, R. (1992). The vengeance scale: Development of a measure of attitudes toward revenge, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 25-42.

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Friday, August 13, 2021

Forgiveness Likelihood Scale (FLS)

 


Scale name: Forgiveness Likelihood Scale (FLS)

Scales overview: 

The Forgiveness Likelihood Scale (FLS) is a scenario-based 10-item scale. Respondents read the scenarios and decide how likely they would be to forgive the offender using a 5-point rating scale.

Authors: Mark S. Rye et al. 2001

Response Type: A 5-point Likert-type response rating that ranges from 1 = Not at all likely to 5 = Extremely likely.

Subscales: None

Sample items:

“One of your friends starts a nasty rumor about you that is not true. As a result, people begin treating you worse than they have in the past. What is the likelihood that you would choose to forgive your friend?”

 “Your significant other has a ‘one night stand’ and becomes sexually involved with someone else. What is the likelihood that you would choose to forgive your significant other?”

 Reliability The authors used factor analysis and report the results in their article.

Cronbach’s alpha was .85.

Test-retest reliability was .81.

Read about test reliability.

Validity: The FLS was significantly positively correlated with the following measures:

Forgiveness Scales AN and PP

Enright Forgiveness Inventory

A single item rating of forgiveness

     A t-test revealed no gender differences. (Read about t-tests.)

 Read about test validity

Availability: The scale can be found on pages 276-277 of the 2001 article in Current Psychology.

Permissions -- if identified

 Test Reference

Rye, M. S., Loiacono, D. M., Folck, C. D., Olszewski, B. T., Heim, T. A., & Madia, B. P. (2001). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two forgiveness scales. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 20(3), 260–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-001-1011-6

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 Resource Link for More Tests:  A – Z Test Index

 Resource Link for Statistics Terms

 Read more about the Psychology of Forgiveness

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Wednesday, August 11, 2021

Forgiveness Scale Rye 2001

 


Scale name: Forgiveness Scale

Scales overview This is a 15-item revision of an earlier version measuring how participants respond to wrongdoing.

Authors: Mark S. Rye et al (2001) See below.

 Response Type Likert-type 5 options ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree)

Subscales: 2 factors reported as 

AN = absence of negative responses and 

PP = presence of positive responses toward the wrongdoer.

Sample items

“I spend time thinking about ways to get back at the person who wronged me”

“If I encountered the person who wronged me I would feel at peace.” 

Reliability

Cronbach alphas: AN =.86, PP = .85

Test retest: AN =.76, PP = .80

Validity (see validity)

Significant positive correlations with the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale, Enright Forgiveness Inventory, and a Single Item Forgiveness rating.

Availability: See the appendix in the article below (Rye et al., 2001).

Permissions -- if identified

 Scale Reference

Rye, M. S., Loiacono, D. M., Folck, C. D., Olszewski, B. T., Heim, T. A., & Madia, B. P. (2001). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two forgiveness scales. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 20(3), 260–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-001-1011-6

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Reference List of Books about Forgiveness


Resource Link:  A – Z Test list Index

 

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Tuesday, January 5, 2021

HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R)

 


The HEXACO is a six-domain measure of personality available in 60-item and 100-item versions. The scale has been translated into many languages. These scales are available on the HEXACO website.

The letters in HEXACO represent the names of the six domains. The domains are referred to as scales and are listed below. I will add a few descriptive words for each scale and provide the link below where you can obtain more details.

In addition to the scales for the six domains, each domain has subscales referred to as facet-level scales. I have simply used the word subscales for these facets.

 HEXACO authors: Kibeom Lee and Michael C. Ashton

**********

Honesty-Humility: temptation to break or follow rules, motivations for personal gain, self-importance.

Subscales: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty

Emotionality: fear, worry, anxiety, emotional support

Subscales: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality

eXtraversion: interest/ comfort in social interactions; confidence in social settings

Subscales: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness

Agreeableness (versus anger): willingness to compromise, cooperate; ability to manage temper; capacity for forgiveness

Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience

Conscientiousness: concern for organization; disciplined pursuit of goals, concern for accuracy and perfection

Subscales: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence

Openness to Experience: inquisitive, creative, interested in new ideas

Subscales: Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality

**********

Interstitial Scales

The authors added two scales that measure specific trait patterns

Altruism versus Antagonism

Negative Self-Evaluation

Psychometric properties

Many articles present the factor structure and information related to reliability and validity. See the references below for psychometric properties.

Where to find the HEXACO

You can take the HEXACO online CLICK HERE

You can get copies in different languages CLICK HERE

SCOPES domain = O / Observable behavior patterns/personality

To find other tests and measures CLICK HERE


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References

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150-166.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO-60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 340-345.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages. Journal of Personality, 76, 1001-1053.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018).  Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100.  Assessment25, 543-556.

Books

Advances in HEXACO Personality Research


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Monday, February 3, 2020

FORGIVENESS - Group Forgiveness Scale GFS




The Group Forgiveness Scale (GFS) was developed to measure forgiveness of identity-related offenses. Research supports three factors for the 17 items: Avoidance, Revenge, Decision to Forgive.

In the article describing its development, the authors focused on problems of race relations in the United States (see Davis et al., 2015, below).

The GFS is an adaptation of the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Scale (TRIM). According to the 2015 article by Don Davis and his research team, 17-items resulted in factor loadings on three distinct subscales: Avoidance, Revenge, and Decision to Forgive.

Sample items for each factor are as follows:

Avoidance
            I am avoiding them.

Revenge
            I am going to get even.

Decision to Forgive
            I have decided to forgive them.

Reliability Data
Reliability values were strong as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (Study 3: Avoidance .96; Revenge .97, Decision to Forgive .97).

Validity Data
The decision to forgive subscale was significantly correlated with the Religious Commitment Inventory (RCI) r = .27. The other subscales were not significantly correlated with the RCI. See the article for details on factor structure and other results.

Cite This Blog Post

Sutton, G.W. (2020, February 3). Group forgiveness scale GFS. Assessment, Statistics, & Research. https://statistics.suttong.com/2020/02/group-forgiveness-scale-gfs.html

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


Researchers may obtain the scale from the hyperlink in the reference at the end of this post. 

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Article Reference

Davis, D. E., DeBlaere, C., Hook, J. N., Burnette, J., Van Tongeren, D. R., Rice, K. G., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2015). Intergroup forgiveness of race-related offenses. Journal of Counseling Psychology62(3), 402–412. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000081.supp

Read more about forgiveness in Chapter 6 of  Living Well














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Thursday, May 31, 2018

COMPASSION - How to Measure Compassion




Five survey items describing compassion.

A group of researchers in the Psychology Department of Santa Clara University identified five statements that reflect compassion. Of course, people may disagree with the idea that five sentences describe the concept, compassion. Nevertheless, the researchers did consider 21 statements and found that a set of five captures most of what people considered to be the essential components of compassion in a 2005 study by other researchers.

The short scale is known as the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (SCBCS, Compassion Scale; Hwang, Plante, & Lackey, 2008). It was derived from the longer 21-item Compassionate Love Scale developed by Sprecher and Fehr (2005).

Although the scale has been used in Psychology of Religion research, the items do not limit users to compassion in a religious context.

Sample items

You can find the full scale at the Journal’s website. Following are two items from the scale.



Scoring

The Compassion Scale asks respondents to rate each item on a scale of 1 to 7, which yields a possible range of 5 to 35 points. In research with my colleagues Kayla Jordan and Ev Worthington (2014), we found Christians rated themselves at the high end with a mean of 28.69 (SD = 5.46). Measures of Skew (-1.10) and Kurtosis (1.26) were adequate for analyses but less than ideal.

Educators, researchers, and students may want to add a this brief compassion scale to their survey projects.



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 Reliability

Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) values were reported as .96 for the longer version and .90 for the new five-item short version. Using the test-retest method, the authors reported values of .80 and .83.
In our 2014 study, we found alpha = .89.

Validity

Validity statistics support the value of the Compassion Scale as a reasonable indicator of the construct and useful for various surveys and other research projects.
For example, in our table of correlations, the total score on the Compassion Scale was significantly positively correlated with, yet distinct from forgiveness (.25), hope (.18), and intrinsic religiosity (.26). See the table of 11 measures for additional correlations (page 218 of Sutton, Jordan, & Worthington, 2014).

Organizational and Clinical Practice

Although the scale has been used in research, the items may also be useful to help clinicians think about the level of compassion in their clients. The scale may also be useful to leaders in social organizations. As can be seen, the language of the scale does not limit its usage to strictly religious studies.

Read more about Love as Compassion in Chapter 10 of  Living Well













Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


References
Hwang, J., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: An abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr's Compassionate Love Scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421-428. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0117-2
Sprecher, S., & Fehr, B. (2005). Compassionate love for close others and humanity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 629–651.
Sutton, G. W., Jordan, K., & Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2014). Spirituality, hope, compassion, and forgiveness: Contributions of Pentecostal spirituality to godly love. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33, 212-226. Academia Link     ResearchGate 
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Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ)

  Assessment name: Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) Scale overview: The Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) is a 6-item self-repor...