Showing posts with label forgiveness. Show all posts
Showing posts with label forgiveness. Show all posts

Tuesday, January 5, 2021

HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R)


The HEXACO is a six-domain measure of personality available in 60-item and 100-item versions. The scale has been translated into many languages. These scales are available on the HEXACO website.

The letters in HEXACO represent the names of the six domains. The domains are referred to as scales and are listed below. I will add a few descriptive words for each scale and provide the link below where you can obtain more details.

In addition to the scales for the six domains, each domain has subscales referred to as facet-level scales. I have simply used the word subscales for these facets.

 HEXACO authors: Kibeom Lee and Michael C. Ashton


Honesty-Humility: temptation to break or follow rules, motivations for personal gain, self-importance.

Subscales: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty

Emotionality: fear, worry, anxiety, emotional support

Subscales: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality

eXtraversion: interest/ comfort in social interactions; confidence in social settings

Subscales: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness

Agreeableness (versus anger): willingness to compromise, cooperate; ability to manage temper; capacity for forgiveness

Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience

Conscientiousness: concern for organization; disciplined pursuit of goals, concern for accuracy and perfection

Subscales: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence

Openness to Experience: inquisitive, creative, interested in new ideas

Subscales: Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality


Interstitial Scales

The authors added two scales that measure specific trait patterns

Altruism versus Antagonism

Negative Self-Evaluation

Psychometric properties

Many articles present the factor structure and information related to reliability and validity. See the references below for psychometric properties.

Additional notes

Given the “H” (honesty-humility) domain, it is not surprising to learn of a moderate relationship with spirituality (Aghababaei et al., 2014). Ferrari and his team (2017) explored relationships between the 60-item HEXACO and measures of spirituality (Religious Commitment Inventory(RCI), Worthington et al., 2003; Spiritual Transcendence Inventory (TCI), Piedmont, 1999) in a Catholic sample of deacons and candidates for deacon. Honesty-humility and Extraversion significantly predicted both the Intrapersonal and the Interpersonal subscales of the RCI. HEXACO scales significantly predicted subscales of the TCI for the candidate sample. Agreeableness significantly predicted the belief/prayer subscale and extraversion and openness to experience significantly predicted connectedness. More HEXACO scales were predictive for the deacon sample. Four scales predicted intrapersonal and interpersonal subscales of the RCI: honesty-humility, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Agreeableness was only predictive of the Intrapersonal subscale. Four HEXACO scales predicted both belief/prayer and belief/connectedness subscales of the TCI: Honesty-humility, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Agreeableness predicted belief/prayer and emotionality predicted belief/connectedness.

Where to find the HEXACO

You can take the HEXACO online CLICK HERE

You can get copies in different languages CLICK HERE

SCOPES domain = O / Observable behavior patterns/personality

To find other tests and measures CLICK HERE

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Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150-166.

Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO-60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 340-345.

Ferrari, J. R., Reed, J., & Guerrero, M. (2017). Personality as predictor of religious commitment and spiritual beliefs: Comparing Catholic deacons and men in formation. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 19(1), 20–33.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages. Journal of Personality, 76, 1001-1053.

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2018).  Psychometric properties of the HEXACO-100.  Assessment25, 543-556.


Advances in HEXACO Personality Research

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Monday, February 3, 2020

FORGIVENESS - Group Forgiveness Scale GFS

Scale Name: Group Forgiveness Scale (GFS)

The Group Forgiveness Scale (GFS) was developed to measure forgiveness of identity-related offenses. Research supports three factors for the 17 items: Avoidance, Revenge, Decision to Forgive.

In the article describing its development, the authors focused on problems of race relations in the United States (see Davis et al., 2015, below).

The GFS is an adaptation of the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Scale (TRIM). According to the 2015 article by Don Davis and his research team, 17-items resulted in factor loadings on three distinct subscales: Avoidance, Revenge, and Decision to Forgive.

Sample items for each factor are as follows:

            I am avoiding them.

            I am going to get even.

Decision to Forgive
            I have decided to forgive them.

Reliability Data
Reliability values were strong as measured by Cronbach’s alpha (Study 3: Avoidance .96; Revenge .97, Decision to Forgive .97).

Validity Data
The decision to forgive subscale was significantly correlated with the Religious Commitment Inventory (RCI) r = .27. The other subscales were not significantly correlated with the RCI. See the article for details on factor structure and other results.

Cite This Blog Post

Sutton, G.W. (2020, February 3). Group forgiveness scale GFS. Assessment, Statistics, & Research.

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Researchers may obtain the scale from the hyperlink in the reference at the end of this post. 

Learn how to add scales like the GFS to surveys or write your own items in

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Article Reference

Davis, D. E., DeBlaere, C., Hook, J. N., Burnette, J., Van Tongeren, D. R., Rice, K. G., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2015). Intergroup forgiveness of race-related offenses. Journal of Counseling Psychology62(3), 402–412.

Read more about forgiveness in Chapter 6 of  Living Well


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Thursday, May 31, 2018

COMPASSION - How to Measure Compassion

Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (SCBCS)

The Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale consists of five survey items describing compassion.

A group of researchers in the Psychology Department of Santa Clara University identified five statements that reflect compassion. Of course, people may disagree with the idea that five sentences describe the concept, compassion. Nevertheless, the researchers did consider 21 statements and found that a set of five captures most of what people considered to be the essential components of compassion in a 2005 study by other researchers.

The short scale is known as the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (SCBCS;  Hwang, Plante, & Lackey, 2008). It was derived from the longer 21-item Compassionate Love Scale developed by Sprecher and Fehr (2005).

Although the scale has been used in Psychology of Religion research, the items do not limit users to compassion in a religious context.

Sample items

You can find the full scale at the Journal’s website. Following are two items from the scale.


The Compassion Scale asks respondents to rate each item on a scale of 1 to 7, which yields a possible range of 5 to 35 points. In research with my colleagues Kayla Jordan and Ev Worthington (2014), we found Christians rated themselves at the high end with a mean of 28.69 (SD = 5.46). Measures of Skew (-1.10) and Kurtosis (1.26) were adequate for analyses but less than ideal.

Educators, researchers, and students may want to add a this brief compassion scale to their survey projects.

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Internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) values were reported as .96 for the longer version and .90 for the new five-item short version. Using the test-retest method, the authors reported values of .80 and .83.
In our 2014 study, we found alpha = .89.


Validity statistics support the value of the Compassion Scale as a reasonable indicator of the construct and useful for various surveys and other research projects.
For example, in our table of correlations, the total score on the Compassion Scale was significantly positively correlated with, yet distinct from forgiveness (.25), hope (.18), and intrinsic religiosity (.26). See the table of 11 measures for additional correlations (page 218 of Sutton, Jordan, & Worthington, 2014).

Organizational and Clinical Practice

Although the scale has been used in research, the items may also be useful to help clinicians think about the level of compassion in their clients. The scale may also be useful to leaders in social organizations. As can be seen, the language of the scale does not limit its usage to strictly religious studies.

Read more about Love as Compassion in Chapter 10 of  Living Well

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index

Hwang, J., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale: An abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr's Compassionate Love Scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421-428. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0117-2
Sprecher, S., & Fehr, B. (2005). Compassionate love for close others and humanity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 629–651.
Sutton, G. W., Jordan, K., & Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2014). Spirituality, hope, compassion, and forgiveness: Contributions of Pentecostal spirituality to godly love. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 33, 212-226. Academia Link     ResearchGate 
Photo credit: Edge images free to use.
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