Showing posts with label emotion. Show all posts
Showing posts with label emotion. Show all posts

Thursday, October 27, 2022

Depression Anxiety Stress Scales -21 (DASS-21)


Scale name: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

Scale overview: The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) is a 21-item screening instrument for the three psychological conditions of depression, anxiety, and stress.

Note: There is a 42-item version of the DASS. This post focuses on the 21-item version.

Authors: Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995)

Response Type: Items are rated on a 4-point scale of frequency.

0 = Did not apply to me at all.

1= Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time.

2= Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time.

3 = Applied to me very much, or most of the time.

Scale items

Each of the three scales (Depression, Anxiety, Stress) has 7-items worded in the first person e.g., “I felt…” or “I experienced…” and so forth.



Internal consistency values based on Cronbach Alpha calculations were strong for the DASS-21 (Antony et al., 1988).

Depression = .94

Anxiety = .87

Stress = .91

Validity: Factor analysis supported the structure of three scales. Factor loadings are reported in the Antony et al. (1988) publication.

Antony et al., (1988) reported concurrent validity data comparing the three DASS-21 scales to the Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) and STAI-T measures.

DASS-21 Scales- Correlations with other measures

Depression and BDI = .79

Anxiety and BAI = .85

Stress and STAI-T = .68

Note: All of the scales in the study were correlated with values ranging from .46 to .85.


Stanford et al. (2021) included the DASS-21 in a psychology of religion study. Religious coping was assessed using the Brief RCOPE. Negative coping was linked to stress (39), anxiety (.40), and depression (.41). There was a weak, albeit statistically significant relationship between positive religious coping and anxiety (.16) but not for either stress or depression.


DASS-21 and the SCOPES Model

The three subscales of the DASS-21 screen for mental health conditions associated with the E (Emotion/Mood) dimension of the multidimensional SCOPES model.


The full set of 21 items is available from the PsycTESTS database.

The items can also be found in Table 2 of the Antony et al. 1998 article.


Permissions: According to PsycTESTS:

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.


References for the scale

Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176-181. doi:

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi:


Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index



The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.


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Monday, February 22, 2021

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)


A questionnaire widely used in research is known by its acronym PANAS, that is, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988). 

Subscales and examples

There are 10 items to measure positive and negative affect. Examples of positive affect include enthusiastic, alert, and excited. Examples of negative affect include ashamed, guilty, and afraid.

Internal consistency values were .86 to .90 for the positive affect subscale and .84 to .87 for the negative affect subscale (Watson et al., 1988). Validity data support the value of the PANAS for measuring affect.

The PANAS measures the E (emotional) component of the SCOPES model of human functioning.

Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ)

  Assessment name: Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) Scale overview: The Identity Salience Questionnaire (ISQ) is a 6-item self-repor...