A questionnaire widely used in research is known by its acronym PANAS, that is, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988).
Subscales and examples
There are 10 items to measure positive and negative affect. Examples of positive affect include enthusiastic, alert, and excited. Examples of negative affect include ashamed, guilty, and afraid.
Internal consistency values were .86 to .90 for the positive affect subscale and .84 to .87 for the negative affect subscale (Watson et al., 1988). Validity data support the value of the PANAS for measuring affect.
The PANAS measures the E (emotional) component of the SCOPES model of human functioning.
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