Attitudes and Experiences of Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress


Scale name: Attitudes and Experiences of Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

Scale overview: Lloyd and Waller (2020) used nine items to assess the relationship of spiritual etiology to mental distress in a British sample (n = 446).


Response Type and items:

The 9-questions were organized into three groups. Respondents were presented with different response options depending on the question.

1. Spiritualization of Mental Distress 1-4

Example: Has your current or previous church or related teaching taught that mental distress was the result of demons, spirits or generational curses? Response options were yes, no, or unsure.

2. Views on secular/psychological treatments 5 – 7.

Example: 5. Do you believe psychological treatments, such as therapy, can be successful in treating mental distress? Response options were yes, no, or unsure. Questions 6-7 asked about church support.

3. Interaction with the Church community 8-9

Example: Overall, how do you feel about your church’s attitude towards mental distress? This was rated on a 5-point scale of very positive to very negative. The next items asked, “How has your interaction with the church, in relation to your mental health, affected your faith?” Response options were Strengthened it, Not impacted it, or Weakened it.

The researchers also asked about the cause of mental distress. Respondents had five options. Examples include traumatic or negative life experiences and Other spiritual causes (generational curses, demonic, the occult, etc.)


The researchers reported the percentage of responses endorsed in two tables and provided a summary in the text. In the discussion, they note differences with similar surveys in the United States


The questions can be found in the article below. The 9-questions are in Table 1 along with the answers.

Reference for the scale

Christopher E. M. Lloyd & Robert M. Waller (2020): Demon? Disorder? Or none of the above? A survey of the attitudes and experiences of evangelical Christians with mental distress, Mental Health, Religion & Culture, DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2019.1675148

Pdf found on Researchgate 7 September 2022


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