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Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS)

Assessment name:  Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS)

Scale overview: The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS) is a 19-item self-report measure of religious obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The 2007 revision has 15 items.

The authors, some of whom had clinical experience with OCD, suggest the PIOS is useful for research and clinical practice.


Abramowitz and other- See the 2002 reference below.

For the 15-item revision, see Olatunji et al. (2007).


Response Type: Items are rated on a scale of symptom frequency from 0 = never to 4 = constantly.

Scale items

In religious participants, the PIOS has yielded two factors: Fear of God and Fear of Sin. The items refer to worries about unacceptable thoughts and actions from God’s perspective and other items refer to worries about immoral thoughts and behavior without mentioning God.


Psychometric properties

The authors reported strong values for internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed two factors. Correlational analyses with other measures provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity.

Olatunji et al. (2007) used the revised PIOS and reported moderate positive correlations with several measures including the Obsessive-Compulsive-Inventory-Revised, and both the state and trait Anxiety Scales.


In psychology, scrupulosity refer to a type of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. The obsessions are religious or moral thoughts that evoke anxiety and lead to compulsive thought and actions to reduce the anxiety.


In 2023, this link provided a word document for the 15-item PIOS-R!&&p=465aff734dfe7169JmltdHM9MTY3ODE0NzIwMCZpZ3VpZD0zZjQ4NGFjNC1iZGE0LTZmNWUtMzFiNC01ODA5YmMyMjZlNmEmaW5zaWQ9NTE5Nw&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=3f484ac4-bda4-6f5e-31b4-5809bc226e6a&psq=pios-r+word+coument&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lYXJsYXR2YW5kZXJiaWx0LmZpbGVzLndvcmRwcmVzcy5jb20vMjAxNy8wMS9waW9zLXIuZG9j&ntb=1

 Related Scale

Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS)

References for the scale

Abramowitz, J. S., Huppert, J. D., Cohen, A. B., Tolin, D. F., & Cahill, S. P. (2002). Religious obsessions and compulsions in a non-clinical sample: the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 825–838.

Olatunji BO, Abramowitz JS, Williams NL, Connolly KM, Lohr JM. Scrupulosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: confirmatory factor analysis and validity of the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2007, 21(6), 771-87. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.12.002.

Phillips, A., & Fisak, B. (2022). An examination of the factor structure of the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity-Revised (PIOS-R) in atheist and Christian samples. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 14(2), 222–228.


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 Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index





The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.


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