Saturday, April 2, 2022

Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences


Scale name: Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences

Scale overview:

The 24-item Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences (MADE) was designed to evaluate the stress experiences of people who identify as atheists using a 6-point rating scale.

Authors: Brewster, M. E., Hammer, J., Sawyer, J. S., Eklund, A., & Palamar, J.

Response Type:  6-point Likert-type; 1 = never, 6 = almost all of the time

Subscales: There are five factors


Bringing Shame

Asked to Pass

Overt Maltreatment

Social Ostracism


Sample items

Immoral - I have been told that, as an atheist, I cannot be a moral person.


Bringing Shame - I have been told that I am selfish because I am atheist.


Asked to Pass - I have been asked to go along with religious traditions to avoid “stirring up trouble.”


Overt Maltreatment - People have denied me services because of my atheism.


Social Ostracism - Because of my atheism, others have avoided me.



Reliability: The 2016 article includes Cronbach’s alphas of .94 and .95

Validity: The 2016 article contains findings of a factor analysis and convergent validity.


See the PsycTESTS reference below for a copy of the scale.

See also the article available in the journal reference and on ResearchGate

Permissions -- if identified

Contact the correspondence author: Melanie E. Brewster



Brewster, M. E., Hammer, J., Sawyer, J. S., Eklund, A., & Palamar, J. (2016). Measure of Atheist Discrimination Experiences [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi:

Brewster, Melanie E., Hammer, Joseph, Sawyer, Jacob S., Eklund, Austin, & Palamar, Joseph. (2016). Perceived experiences of atheist discrimination: Instrument development and evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 63(5), 557-570. doi:


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