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Student Self-Efficacy



* Note. This post has been updated to provide an available measure of student self-efficacy.


Scale overview: The student self-efficacy scale is a 10-item measure of self-efficacy. It was developed using data from university nursing students in the United States.

Authors: Melodie Rowbotham and Gerdamarie Schmitz

Response Type: A four-choice rating scale as follows:

1 = not at all true

2 = hardly true

3 = moderately true

4 = exactly true

 Self-efficacy is the perception that a person can act in a way to achieve a desired goal. 

Scale items

There are 10 items. Examples:

I am confident in my ability to learn, even if I am having a bad day.

If I try hard enough, I can obtain the academic goals I desire.


Psychometric properties

The authors reported that their sample scores ranged from 25 to 40 with a scale mean of 34.23 (SD = 3.80. Internal consistency was high at alpha = .84.

The authors reported the results of a principal components analysis, which offered some support for a one-dimensional scale.

What is self-efficacy? See the link below.

 Read more about the psychology of self-efficacy.


The full set of 10 items can be found in the article— see the reference below.


Reference for the scale

Rowbotham, M. & Schmitz, G.S. (2013). Development and validation of a student self-efficacy scale. Journal of Nursing Care, 2:1. Doi: 10.4172/2167-1168.1000126.

 Sutton, G. W. (2023, May 4). Student Self-efficacy Scale. Assessment, Statistics, and Research. Retrieved from 


The scale was developed on a small sample of young university students. The authors built the scale following the theory developed by Bandura and considered items from a related measure. See their literature review for details.

At the time of this review, the full article with the items was available for downloading as a pdf file.


Academic Self-Efficacy Scale      ASE

General Self-Efficacy Scale       GSE

Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Questionnaire      MSEAQ

  Reading Self-Efficacy Scales  >>     RSES

  Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy Scale >>  SMSE


   Diet Self-efficacy Scale >>   DIET-SE

Resource Link for More Tests:  A – Z Test Index

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Books about self-efficacy

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