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Fibonacci Life Chart and Psychology

  The Fibonacci sequence is a series of numbers where each number is the sum of the two previous numbers. The sequence starts with 0 and 1, and then continues with 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and so on. The number of leaves on a plant or the number of branches on a tree will often follow the Fibonacci sequence. Robert G. Sacco (2013) developed the Fibonacci Life Chart Method (FLCM) and applied it to Erikson’s eight developmental stages (1982). Sacco presented a revised age-stage chart. Following is a quote from Sacco’s discussion (p. 143). The results of this study provide support for the assumption of an eight-stage theory of development. The FLCM serves several useful functions. These include: (a) substantially improving understanding of the eight developmental life stages proposed by Erikson, and (b) the use of it as a tool for timing of interventions.     References Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed . New York: Norton. Sacco, R. G. (2013). Re-envisaging the eig

Citing and Referencing ChatGPT-APA style

  Citing and Referencing ChatGPT in APA Style I have used ChatGPT recently to explore psychological concepts. The quality of responses varies. I also asked  ChatGPT   for APA style references. The format was fine, but I was unable to verify some of the references, which caused me some concern about the accuracy of the generated text. I looked at the APA guidelines for referencing ChatGPT (McAdoo, 2023). One concern I have about the APA guideline is the sharing of authorship. That is, although ChatGPT generated the response, the response involved my collaboration in formulating a precise prompt. The better the prompt, the better the response as if two humans were writing a paper together. An Example When I entered the prompt “How do psychologists define forgiveness? ” ChatGPT provided the response below. Psychologists define forgiveness as a conscious and deliberate decision to release feelings of resentment or vengeance towards a person or group who has harmed you, despite th

Religious Life Inventory- REVISED

  Assessment name:   Religious Life Inventory- Revised (RLI-R) Scale overview: The Religious Life Inventory-Revised (RLI-R) is a 24-item revision of the original  Religious Life Inventory (RLI). The Religious Life Inventory (RLI) was based on a history of research into the multidimensional construct of religious orientation. Batson and Schoenrade (1991a, 1991b) drew upon the work of Allport and Ross (1967) when creating the RLI. The original RLI had 78-items, which were rated on a 9-point scale of agreement. The RLI was revised by Hills and others (2005a). NOTE: This post focuses on the Revised Religious Life Inventory. Authors: Original: Batson and Schoenrade / Revised : Hills, Francis & Robbins Response Type: The items assess religious orientation on a 9-point scale of agreement.   1 = Strongly Agree, 9 = Strongly Disagree Scale items The three subscales with examples follow.   Extrinsic scale (7 items) The primary purpose of prayer is to gain relief and prote

New Indices of Religious Orientation (NIRO)

  Assessment name:   New Indices of Religious Orientation (NIRO) Scale overview: The New Indices of Religious Orientation (NIRO) is a self-report rating scale of intrinsic, extrinsic, and quest religious orientations developed for use with adults. Authors: L. J. Francis, 2007 Response Type: The items are rated on a five-point scale of agreement (agree strongly, agree , not certain , disagree, and disagree strongly). Scale items: There are a 27-item and an 18-item formats. There are three orientations in the NIRO and each has subdomains.   1. Extrinsic orientation     Compartmentalization     Social Support     Personal Support   2. Intrinsic Orientation     Integration     Public Religion     Personal Religion   3. Quest Orientation     Existentialism     Self-Criticism     Openness to Change Psychometric properties The internal consistency values were good, and the three subscales were supported by factor analysis. Both the long and short form items are available in the

Spiritual Meaning Scale (SMS)

  Scale overview: The Spiritual Meaning Scale (SMS) was developed to measure a person’s belief in a meaningful life, which may include the idea that life has a purpose (Mascaro et al., 2004). A revised version has 15 items (Mascaro & Rosen, 2006).   Authors: Mascaro and Rosen Response Type: Each item is rated on a five-point scale of personal agreement from 1 = I totally disagree to 5 = I totally agree. Scale items Psychometric properties Mascaro (2006) reported evidence of good internal and test-retest reliability. Validity evidence includes significant positive correlations with hope and significant negative correlations with depression and hopelessness. Availability: See Mascaro, N. (29 October 2006) below. References for the scale Mascaro, N. (29 October 2006). Longitudinal analysis of the relationship of existential meaning with depression and hope. Dissertation retrieved from Longitudinal analysis of the relationship of existential meaning with depres

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

  Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique that is widely used in psychology and related fields to examine the relationships between observed variables and latent constructs. In SEM, a theoretical model is specified in which the relationships between latent constructs and observed variables are represented by a set of equations.   An example of the application of SEM in counseling psychology might involve examining the relationship between different types of coping strategies and symptoms of depression. The model might include several latent constructs such as avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and depression, as well as observed variables such as self-reported coping behaviors and measures of depressive symptoms. SEM would allow researchers to test the strength and direction of the relationships between these constructs and variables, as well as the overall fit of the model to the data. An Example Smith, J. K., Johnson, L. M., & Jones, R. T. (20

Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS)

  Assessment name:   Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) Scale overview: The Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) is a 12-item self-report instrument focused on problems linked to viewing pornography (Kor et al., 2014a; 2014b). Authors: Ariel Kors and others Response Type: Items are rated on a six-point scale of truth values (0 = Never True, 1 = Rarely True, 2 = Sometimes True, 3 = Often True, 4 = Very Often True, 5 = Almost Always True). Scale items The researchers identified four factors: Excessive Use, Use to Escape/Avoid Negative Emotions, Self-control Difficulties, Distress and Functional Problems. Each factor is measured with three items. Psychometric properties Internal consistency values were good to high and there is evidence supporting construct and convergent validity. Availability: See Kor et al. 2014a for the list of items linked to each factor. Read a definition of pornography Reference for the scale Kor, A., Zilcha-Mano, S., Fogel, Y. A.,