Persevering Hope Scale (PHS)


Hope (2023) by Geoffrey W Sutton
and Bing AI

Assessment name:  Persevering Hope Scale (PHS)

Scale overview: Sandra Yu Rueger and her colleagues developed the Persevering Hope Scale (PHS) to assess peoples’ motivation to persevere in situations where the achievement of goals seems unlikely or even impossible.

They drew upon knowledge from theological, empirical, and clinical experience to develop the four-item self-report measure.

Authors: Sandra Yu Rueger and her colleagues

Response Type: Respondents see a stem, “When an outcome I desire seems unlikely or even impossible…” then rate each variation on the perseverance theme on a scale of frequency from (1 = not at all to 5 = very).

Scale items

There are four items, which refer to a person’s willingness to keep trying and not give up when pursuing a desired outcome. See the article appendix for the list of items.

Psychometric properties

Rueger et al. (2023) conducted their research among adults in the US. A little more than half reported a religious affiliation. The authors provide evidence for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, and initial support for convergent and discriminant validity. The PHS was moderately correlated with the total and two subscales of the Adult Hope Scale mentioned above. Significant associations were also evident between the PHS and measures of optimism grit, conscientiousness, positive religious coping and psychological health.

Availability: See the appendix in Rueger et al. (2023) for the set of items and the rating scale.

Reference for the scale

Rueger, S. Y., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Davis, E. B., Chen, Z. J., Cowden, R. G., Moloney, J. M., Eveleigh, E., Stone, L. B., Lemke, A. W., & Glowiak, K. J. (2023). Development and initial validation of the Persevering Hope Scale: Measuring wait-power in four independent samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 105(1), 58-73. doi:      


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Post Author


Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:


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