### z-scores or standard scores

A z-score tells you the distance of the score from the arithmetic mean of a set of scores that are normally distributed.

The z-score represents standard deviation units thus, a z-score of 1 means it is one standard deviation above the mean of the set of scores. A z-score of minus one (-1) means the score is one standard deviation below the mean of the set of scores.

The z-scores are often plotted along the x-axis of  a normal distribution, which is sometimes called the bell curve.

Use lower case italics when reporting z-scores in APA style. The upper case Z is a different score.

You can calculate a z-score by subtracting a raw score from the mean and dividing by the standard deviation of the set of scores.

Example: A raw score on a test = 60. If the mean = 50 and the standard deviation = 10 then (60-50) = 10 and 10 divided by 10 = 1.0. The z score is 1.0, it is one standard deviation above the mean.

Most z- scores fall between -3.0 and +3.0 but it is possible to have scores beyond - 3or + 3.

Related posts

Mean

Normal curve or distribution

Resources

Please consider my books on statistics and research available on   AMAZON       or GOOGLE  Thank you.

Creating Surveys on   AMAZON       or

### Student Self-Efficacy

Assessment name:  STUDENT SELF-EFFICACY SCALE * Note. This post has been updated to provide an available measure of student self-efficacy. ———- Scale overview:  The  student self-efficacy scale i s a 10-item measure of self-efficacy. It was developed using data from university nursing students in the United States. Authors: Melodie Rowbotham and Gerdamarie Schmitz Response Type:  A four-choice rating scale as follows: 1 = not at all true 2 = hardly true 3 = moderately true 4 = exactly true   Self-efficacy is the perception that a person can act in a way to achieve a desired goal.  Scale items There are 10 items. Examples: I am confident in my ability to learn, even if I am having a bad day. If I try hard enough, I can obtain the academic goals I desire.   Psychometric properties The authors reported that their sample scores ranged from 25 to 40 with a scale mean of 34.23 ( SD  = 3.80. Internal consistency was high at alpha = .84. The authors reported the results of a principal compon

### Personal Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ)

The Personal Self-Concept Questionnaire  ( PSQ )   Overview The Personal Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ) measures self-concept based on ratings of 18 items, which are grouped into four categories: Self-fulfilment, autonomy, honesty, and emotional self-concept. Subscales : The PSQ has four subscales 1. Self-fulfilment (6 items) 2. Autonomy (4 items) 3. Honesty (3 items) 4. Emotional self-concept (5 items)  👉 [ Read more about Self-Concept and Self-Identity] The PSQ is a Likert-type scale with five response options ranging from totally disagree to totally agree. Reliability and Validity In the first study, coefficient alpha = .85 and in study two, alpha = .83. Data analysis supported a four-dimensional model (see the four categories above). Positive correlations with other self-concept measures were statistically significant. Other notes The authors estimated it took about 10 minutes to complete the PSQ. Their first study included people ages 12 to 36 ( n = 506). In the second s