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Belief in Pure Good (BPG) Scale


Assessment name:  Belief in Pure Good Scale (BPG)

Scale overview: The Belief in Pure Good scale is a 28-item self-report rating scale indicating perceptions of good based on the theorizing of Baumeister (1999).

Authors: Webster, Russell J., & Saucier, Donald A

Response Type: Participants rate the items on a 7-point scale of agreement from 1 (disagree very strongly) to 7 (agree very strongly).

Scale items There are 28 items on the scale. Each item is associated with a component of pure good. Following is a list of the components of pure good assessed by the scale.


  Intentional Help

  Facilitates Peace

  Impartial Help

  Without Reward

  Rare in World

  Avoids Aggression

  Defies Corruption

Psychometric properties

The authors provided descriptive statistics and evidence for internal consistency along with early evidence for validity based on correlations with measures of related variables.


The full set of items is available in the article published by the authors in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (2013).

 Assessing Spirituality & Religiosity A Handbook

Beliefs, Practices, Values, & Experiences


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Reference for the scale

Baumeister, R. F. (1999). Evil: Inside human violence and cruelty. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Co.

Webster, R. J., & Saucier, D. A. (2013b). Angels and demons are among us: Assessing individual differences in belief in pure evil and belief in pure good. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39 (11), 1455-1470. doi:


The authors reported findings of the scales of pure evil and pure good in five studies. The data provided general support for the constructs developed by Baumeister. In addition, the relationship of the beliefs in pure evil or pure good were linked to other variables such as attitudes toward aggression and prosocial behavior. As the authors note, they are not concerned with hypothetical questions about the existence of pure evil or pure good. Instead, the authors focus on the measurement of such beliefs as they may relate to how people with strong beliefs in either pure evil or pure good behave toward other people.

Reference for using scales in research:

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Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

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Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index



The information about scales and measures is provided for clinicians and researchers based on professional publications. The links to authors, materials, and references can change. You may be able to locate details by contacting the main author of the original article or another author on the article list.


Post Author


Geoffrey W. Sutton PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology who publishes book and articles about clinical and social psychology including the psychology of religion. Website:


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