Scale name: Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ)
Scale overview: The Spiritual Abuse Questionnaire (SAQ) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire that uses a 4-point Likert Type response format to measure two dimensions of abuse: Power-based affective wounding and Conditionality.
Author: Kathryn Hope Keller
Response Type: 4-point Likert type. The choices are: Strongly disagree, Disagree, Agree, Strongly agree.
Subscales and Sample Items: There are two subscales.
1. Power-based Affective Wounding: “At times, I was
scolded by my leader and made to feel ashamed and helpless” and “I now feel cynical
about church/religious groups.”
2. Conditionality: “I believed I could be totally surrendered to God if I did everything
perfectly according to the church/group’s instructions,” and “I believed God would
punish me if I didn’t do what my church/group encouraged me to do.”
Reliability: Alpha for the 17-item scale was .95 (Keller, 2016). The study sample was 271 and the mean was 50.62 (SD = 14.87, SEM = .90) and Min-Max were 21-80.
Validity: Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution.
For the RSS, r =.76, p<.01. For the subscales, results are as follows: Divine Struggles, r=.68, p<.01; Demonic Struggles, r=.31, p<.01; Interpersonal Struggles, r=.81, p<.01; Moral Struggles, r=.52, p<.01; Doubt Struggle, r=.66, p<.01; and Ultimate Meaning Struggles, r=.54, p<.01. These findings suggest that participants with higher levels of spiritual abuse also experience higher levels of religious and spiritual struggles. (Keller, 2016, page 138)
Note. The RSS is the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale
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Author contact in 2021 https://www.kellerpsychology.com/drkeller.html
Keller, K.R. (2016). Development of a spiritual abuse questionnaire. Dissertation available from https://twu-ir.tdl.org/handle/11274/8760
Reference for using scales in research:
Test Resource Link: A – Z Test Index
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