Five-Factor LAMBI Scale of God Representations


Scale name:  Five-Factor LAMBI Scale of God Representations

Scale overview

A 25-item scale that measures how people view God. The five letters in LAMBI reflect the five dimensions based on factors identified by statistical analyses. Participants rate each one-word item based on their belief about or experience with God rather than what may be considered a correct belief.


Johnson, Kathryn A., Okun, Morris A., Cohen, Adam B., Sharp, Carissa A., & Hook, Joshua N.

Response Type

A Likert-type scale with a 7-point rating from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree

Subscales and sample items

The five subscales are called dimensions. Following each dimension is one of the words participants rate. See the reference to obtain the full scale.

L = Limitless e.g., infinite

A = Authoritarian e.g., strict

M = Mystical e.g., nature

B = Benevolent e.g., gracious

I = Ineffable

Also, 3 items assess views of “No God” that is, Nonexistent, imaginary, and nor real.

Reliability and Validity

The researchers reported results of factor analysis in their article cited below. They reported means, standard deviations, and strong alpha levels for the subscales (e.g., see Study 5 on page 346).


See the PsycTESTS reference below.

Permissions -- if identified

According to PsycTESTS:

Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled.

 SCOPES MODEL DOMAIN = Self/Identity/Spirituality


For the scale items, see:

Johnson, K. A., Okun, M. A., Cohen, A. B., Sharp, C. A., & Hook, J. N. (2018). Five-Factor LAMBI Scale of God Representations [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi:


For the scale development article, see:

Johnson, K. A., Okun, Morris A., Cohen, A. B., Sharp, C. A., & Hook, J. N. (2019). Development and validation of the five-factor LAMBI measure of God representations. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 11(4), 339-349. doi:

A reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on AMAZON or GOOGLE





Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE




Test Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


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