Duke University Religion Index (DUREL)

Corona Chapel/ Canterbury/Geoff Sutton 2023

Scale name:      Duke University Religion Index (DUREL)

Scale overview

The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a 5-item measure of religious participation. The Index measures three dimensions of religiosity:

1. Organizational Religious Activity (ORA)

2. Nonorganizational Religious Activity (NORA)

3. Intrinsic Religiosity (IR; also called subjective religiosity)


Koenig et al. (1997).

Response Type

The DUREL is a self-report scale. Two questions ask about frequency of activity on a 1 to 6 scale. The two items vary slightly in wording.

Three items reflect religious experience and are rated on a 5-point scale from 1 = Definitely not true to 5 = Definitely true of me

Subscales = 3- see names above

Sample items

1. How often do you attend church or other religious meetings?

2. How often do you spend time in private religious activities, such as prayer, meditation, or Bible study?

3. In my life, I experience the presence of the Divine (i.e., God)


According to Koenig and Büssing (2010), test-retest reliability was .91 and alphas ranged from .78 to .91.


Koenig and Büssing (2010) reported convergent validity values of r = .71 to .86 with other measures of religiosity. The DUREL has been used in more than 100 studies around the world.


MDPI link

           Download from AAMC link       

Also see the University of Miami Link

           A bilingual English-Spanish version is available at U Miami

The DUREL has been translated into many languages.

Permissions -- if identified

See the open access article- reference below.


Koenig, H.G. & Büssing, A. (2010). The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): A five-item measure for use in epidemiological studies. Religions1, 78-85. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel1010078

Koenig, H.G. Meador, K.G. & Parkerson, G. (1997). Religion index for psychiatric research. American Journal Psychiatry, 154, 885-886.


Reference for using scales in research:

Creating Surveys on   AMAZON      or GOOGLE


Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE


 Resource Link for more tests and measures:  A – Z Test Index

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