Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES)


Scale overview

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale RSES is a 10-item measure of general self-esteem. It is widely used in research and clinical practice.

Author(s) Morris Rosenberg

Items = 10

Response Type

Participants respond using a 4-point Likert type scale  ranging from strongly agree, agree, disagree, to strongly disagree.

Subscales: None.

Items provided by Fetzer Institute online


Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself. Please

indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement.

1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.

2. At times I think I am no good at all.

3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities.

4. I am able to do things as well as most other people.

5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.

6. I certainly feel useless at times.

7. I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.

8. I wish I could have more respect for myself.

9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.

10. I take a positive attitude toward myself.


Items 2, 5, 6, 8, 9 are reverse scored. Give “Strongly Disagree” 1 point, “Disagree” 2 points,

“Agree” 3 points, and “Strongly Agree” 4 points. Sum scores for all ten items. Keep scores

on a continuous scale. Higher scores indicate higher self-esteem.


The scale has performed well in numerous previous studies.

“RSES has test-retest correlations ranging from .82 to .88. Cronbach’s alpha from various samples has a range of .77 to .88. There is a unidimensional and two-factor structure to the scale (University of Maryland, 2019). Cronbach’s Alpha gives us an indication of internal consistency (Tavakol & Dennick, 2011). Generally, a number greater than .70 is acceptable (UCLA, n.d.).” (Information from Miller, K., 2020)


   The scale is widely used in published research. See recent articles for actual data.

SCOPES domain = Self


   The items above were obtained from the Fetzer Institute’s website.

Permissions -- if identified

   None identified by the Fetzer Institute in the pdf.


Rosenberg, Morris. 1965. Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

 Reference for using scales in research:

 Creating Surveys on AMAZON    or   GOOGLE  Worldwide

 Reference for clinicians on understanding assessment

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE




Resource Links:  A – Z Test Index


     Factor analysis

     Coefficient alpha

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