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MANOVA in Counseling & Behavioral Sciences



MANOVA is the abbreviation for Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The M stands for multivariate and refers to the presence of more than one dependent variable. A MANOVA may have one or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables. For example, we could examine the effects of different presenters and different forgiveness programs on forgiveness and compassion. Studies with three to four independent variables and three to four dependent variables can be difficult to interpret because many interactions are possible.

Independent or grouping Variable = 1 or more

Dependent or criterion Variable = 2 or more

Overall tests are used to determine significant effects or differences among the grouping variables.

An test indicates significance overall and for specific effects or relationships.

A commonly reported measure of effect size is eta squared.

value reveals the probability of a significant relationship-- one that is not due to chance factors.

Read more about basic statistics and MANOVA in the following books.

Applied Statistics Concepts for Counselors on AMAZON or GOOGLE

Creating Surveys on AMAZON    or   GOOGLE  Worldwide

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