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Racial Microaggression Scale (RMAS)

The Racial Microaggression Scale (RMAS) published in 2012 contains 52 items rated on a 4-point Likert Scale and organized in six categories: Invisibility, Criminality, Low achieving/ Undesirable culture, Sexualization, Foreigner/ Does not belong, Environmental Invalidation.

Participants rate the items for experience from "never to often." If an act occurred, then they are asked to rate its level of stress from "not at all" to "high level."

Sample Items

1. Because of my race, other people assume that I am a foreigner.

18. I am singled out by police or security people because of my race.
23. Other people act as if all of the people of my race are alike.

49. I feel invisible because of my race.

The full scale is available from the PsycTESTS database below.

Reliability and Validity

These factors were assessed and published in 2012. See the reference below.

Alpha for the full 52 items was .949

The items were organized into six factors (see pages 156-157)

Invisibility: treated as if one is of lower status, not visible, not seen as a “real” person, and being dismissed or devalued

Criminality: treated as if one is aggressive, dangerous, or a criminal

Low-Achieving/ Undesirable Culture: treated as if people from one’s racial
background are interchangeable, uniformly incompetent, incapable,
low achieving, and dysfunctional, and as if successes are due
to unfair entitlements and special treatment

Sexualization: treated in an overly sexual manner and being subject to
sexual stereotypes

Foreigner/Not Belonging:  made to feel as if one is not a “true” American or does not really belong because of one’s racial background; and

Environmental Invalidations: negative perceptions that derive from observing that people from one’s racial background are largely absent from work, school, or community settings or from positions of power.

The Cronbach’s alphas for the subscales
Environmental Invalidations .81
Foreigner/Not Belonging.78
Sexualization .83
Low-Achieving/Undesirable Culture .87
Criminality .85
Invisibility .89
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Cite This Blog Post

Sutton, G.W. (2020, June 27). Racial microaggression scale (RMAS). Assessment, Statistics, & Research.

Resource Link:  A – Z Test Index


Torres-Harding, S. R., Andrade, A. L., Jr., & Romero Diaz, C. E. (2012). Racial Microaggression Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi:  (For the scale itself)

Torres-Harding, Susan R., Andrade, Alejandro L., & Romero Diaz, Crist E. (2012). The Racial Microaggressions Scale (RMAS): A new scale to measure experiences of racial microaggressions in people of color. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(2), 153-164. doi:

Permission to use the scale
From PsycTESTS

 “Test content may be reproduced and used for non-commercial research and educational purposes without seeking written permission. Distribution must be controlled, meaning only to the participants engaged in the research or enrolled in the educational activity. Any other type of reproduction or distribution of test content is not authorized without written permission from the author and publisher. Always include a credit line that contains the source citation and copyright owner when writing about or using any test.”


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